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A History Of Magic By Bathilda Bagshot

A History of Magic by Bathilda Bagshot. 

Dear Reader— 

When Bathilda Bagshot first published A History ofMagicm 1947, many theories began to crop 
up about how she got her information. Over 20% of Bagshot’s material had never before been 
published. Therefore, people began to explain away her immense knowledge. Newspaper 
headlines read, “Bathilda Bagshot is a Dinosaur Animagus,” and “How did Bagshot Manage to 
Horde Hundreds of Time-Turners.” Incidentally, The Quibbler published an article some time 
later calling all of these theories, “utterly nonsensical, as Bagshot is clearly the Overlord of the 
Kneazles, returned to lead the Kneazle population to world domination.” We can now say with 
reasonable certainty that all of these theories are false. So how did Bagshot gather her 
information? The truth is... it was a lot of guesswork. 

As Bagshot assembled her book, she travelled the world consulting with numerous historians to 
combine their ideas and then present a somewhat-cohesive picture. Notably, Bagshot also 
consulted with members of the centaur and goblin communities to gain their sides of the stories. 
Bagshot thus managed to gather a great deal of information that few wizards had ever before 
heard. Bagshot’s volume was remarkably informative. However, we have now disproved a 
significant segment of her work. 

This may seem counter-intuitive, but history is actually an ever-changing field. Magical history 
is every bit as foggy and whimsical as every other aspect of magical studies. Every day, new data 
is fathered and new theories are composed. Where does this new knowledge come from? Those 
that tell us the most are plants and rocks, which endure time far more gracefully than mankind. 
Here is yet another situation where the Muggle sciences far surpass our own methods. For a long 
while, Muggles have used a method called “archaeology” to study artefacts and fossils buried 
deep below the ground in an attempt to discover the past. While Muggles developed this area of 
study, wizards focused more on experimental spell-and potion- making. By the time we got to 
the Muggle archaeological records, they had already succeeded in tainting and misinterpreting 
many of their samples that were clearly magical. In the past decades, the field of magical history 

has taken enormous strides by analyzing these Muggle records and discovering ones of our own, 
allowing us to now enhance and refute several portions of Bagshot’s original work. For example, 
while Bagshot’s texts on the Goblin Rebellions speak of the fierce goblin leader Colin the 
Conqueror, recent evidence has revealed that Colin never existed and was actually a character 
created by a Goblin group to intimidate the Wizarding Armies. While maintaining a great deal 
of Bagshot’s original work, the Hogwarts textbook staff has worked to update her book. Of 
course, we are confident that the majority of our information will also need to be revised in the 
next few decades. 

Another reason that history is an ever-changing field is that the lens through which we see the 
past, as well as the world around us, is constantly refocusing. Modern readers may be surprised 
to discover how forward-thinking Bathilda’s original volume was. Bathilda’s inclusion of non¬ 
wizards that played an important role in our communities was quite controversial during her 

time. Of course, in the decades following the Wizarding Wars, our views of non-wizarding folk 
have shifted even more. Our updated version of A History of Magic therefore includes even 
more information on the non-wizarding communities which helped shape our own societies. We 
have devoted an entire section to various non-wizarding communities since we believe that their 
histories are every bit as complex and relevant to today’s societies as wizarding history is. 

As you progress through your Magical History course, I encourage you to think critically about 
the material that you read. Consider how the events described here can be compared to current 
events. Think about the impact of events such as the creation of the first wand and the formation 
of the Statute of Secrecy. Finally, attempt to find an answer to the question, “What does it mean 
to be a wizard in this world?” 

Best wishes and good luck on your studies— 

Mallory H. 

Director of Creative Literature 

Morgan C. 


Kathryn E. 

Editor for Hogwarts Textbooks 

Salem Witches' Institute '07, Hollins University 'll 

A graduate of Salem Witches’ Institute, I had the opportunity to study with a number of magical 
historians and art historians both in Salem and London, where I went for a short period of 
further education following my graduation. Independent research, books, and new media 
presentations have furthered my knowledge of magical and Muggle history, which collide more 
frequently than we wizards like to acknowledge. My passion has always lain in the more hidden 
years, where much history is guesswork, fragments, and ruins. As such, I am better versed in the 
history of and theories about early civilizations of the Middle East and Europe, as well as the 
kingdoms and empires that predate modern Western Civilization. My interest dies in the 
increasing pollution and rural poverty of the Industrial Revolution. A stickler for details, 

passionate grammarian, and writer, I hope that you find this textbook informative, detailed, 
accurate, and grammatically correct in every way. 

Mara N. 


Mandi D. (Ravenclaw) 

Salem Institute ‘09; Hogwarts ‘10; Brigham Young University - Currently attending 

I’m that kid - the geeky one who sat in a corner reading about molecular theory instead of 
playing Quidditch. Why molecular theory, of all things? Even though I don’t have any Muggles 
in my close family, my cousin Lorcan and I have shared a fascination of their culture since we 

were little. We strongly believe that Muggle ideas and technology can revolutionize us, if we let 
it. When I began school at Salem Institute, I made special effort to learn more by studying 
Muggle Sciences and Muggle History. I transferred to Hogwarts my seventh year to be closer to 
Lorcan and his brother Lysander. While there, I fell in love with England, but I returned to 
America to attend a Muggle university. Over the last several months, I’ve been given the 
opportunity to help write both A History of Magic and A Beginner’s Guide to Transfiguration. 
My fondest wish is that, after college, I can teach at Hogwarts, so this has been a perfect fit for 
me. I sincerely hope that Hogwarts can also be the perfect fit for you. 

Paige R. (Hufflepuff) 

Salem Institute‘08; Longwood University - Currently attending 

As a Muggle-born witch in the D.C. area, I was stunned and excited to get an acceptance letter 
to Salem Institute in Massachusetts. I loved the academics at Salem, and made some truly 
amazing friends. I specialised in History of Magic and Ancient Runes, though I loved the more 
practical arts of Charms and Transfiguration as well. In my sixth year, I was granted the 
opportunity to study abroad for a year at Hogwarts, where I was given the opportunity to be 
sorted and found myself in a Hatstall between Hufflepuff and Ravenclaw. Sorted officially into 
Hufflepuff, I could not be happier and enjoyed my year at Hogwarts, though I must say Salem 
Institute’s History of Magic professor was far less dull than Hogwarts’ ghost professor! I 
returned to Salem Institute for my seventh year and graduated at the top of my class, from there 
continuing onto Muggle university, finding my aptitude for Muggle subjects had not diminished 
due to rigorous hard work I put in over the summers. While in Muggle university, I am studying 
social work, but my love for history never faded, so I was ever so glad when I could apply to co¬ 
write a new edition of A History of Magic! I have enjoyed writing this book very much, and I 
hope all the students will enjoy the book as well. 

Alex S. (Ravenclaw) 

Hogwarts ‘02 


A full blooded Filipino Ravenclaw despite my name, I was studying at Hogwarts at the time of 
the Second Wizarding War. I was only able to study on the grounds of Hogwarts during my first 
to fourth year. When the war broke, I went back home to the Philippines to avoid the conflicts 
arising at the time. Thankfully, Hogwarts granted me a chance to pursue my studies at a “long¬ 
distance term.” I am part of a special group of Hogwarts students belonging to the Fly Hogwarts 
program, a program created at the time of the war that is designed for overseas students to 
continue their Hogwarts education long-distance. I am currently a researcher at the Institute of 
Asian Magical History in the Philippines and work part-time at the neighboring Muggle 
university as a student moderator. My research has brought me to numerous parts of the world 
where I had the opportunity to meet and speak with renowned magical historians like Madame 
Bathilda Bagshot. I live in the heart of Manila with a small Philippine scops owl named Nugget 
and a mysterious midnight visitor who keeps stealing my oranges. 

Why Study History? 

Magic is the unspoken reason for everything, as any schooling witch and wizard would know. 
Following the introduction of the 1692 International Statue of Secrecy, which sent Wizardkind 
into hiding and forced us to adapt to the Muggle way of life, our place in the history of mankind 
has been hidden from the Muggle historians, who did not even witness the celebrations following 
the Second Wizarding War and whose history books explain the “unexplainable”—those things 
of which magic is the real cause—by citing unseen forces that can manipulate the natural balance 
of life. The magical community has succumbed to the dire fact that, despite our memorable and 
very influential contribution to mankind, it would be best that we keep it a secret from our non¬ 
magic counterparts. Although human effort is still very important, magic has played its part in 
shaping human society. 

But then, what is magic? Young wizarding children know about magic even before they mutter 
a word. Magic is a term used to describe both the good and the bad. 

According to renowned magical historian Augustus Racscol, magic is actually 
‘.. .nature’s ability to provide humans with the power to manipulate and modify conditions 
accordingly. It is a gift blessed to witches and wizards alone for they hold the knowledge and 
wisdom to use it to aid and not to destroy.’ 

It is upon this statement that wizard historians and researchers base all their premises and 
discoveries about magic. The primary goal of every witch and wizard is to promote the 
continuity of the human race by ‘tweaking’ the balance of nature in an effort to give non-magic 
beings the chance to survive and propagate their society. 

Magical historians believe that magic has its roots long before the documentation of human 
existence. Wizard scholars have devoted their lives to the search and rescue of our ancient 
lineage. Quite a number of discoveries have been made in mountain ranges in the Himalayas 
and the Canadian mountains where wizard archaeologists have uncovered cave dwellings that 
depict signs of magical influence in the lives of the dwellers that used to live there. It was 
believed that the caves dated back to the time of the Great Lizards, a time when man first 

emerged on earth. Magic always leaves traces, and the caves were full of magical presence. In 
Professor Utoipius Black’s book Uncovering Magic, he shares an instance during his excavations 
in a Russian mountainside, where one of the necklaces that were left inside the caves attempted 
to strangle the wizard who touched it. It appeared to have been bewitched with an Anti-Thievery 
spell, so that only the owner could touch it. Magic was present long before man, but it needed 
man to be harnessed into something useful and practical. 

Wizards have always been an influence to society-building. In the country of Vietnam in 1975, 
when the Vietnam war ended, a group of Vietnamese wizards, known to magical history as the 
‘Viet nam,’ who sought sanctuary in the country of India returned and helped stabilize the 

crippled government, making reforms and assisting the populace with their uncanny and almost 
impossible feats. They do not appear in any Vietnamese history books because they went against 
the government’s decision to install a single-party state. They were exiled back to India where 
they are currently residing. 

As future society-builders, young wizards must immerse themselves in our history and enhance 
the development of Wizarding kind. Our success as a society lies in our ability to promote our 
good values and hinder the growth of our bad beings. Indeed, the magical community, like any 
other community, is prone to success and failure, but knowledge of our past will prepare us for 
future endeavours. An example of this would be the Wand Wars during the 1500s. Many 
witches and wizards died in an effort to protect the ancient secrets of wandlore from the 
Muggles who sought to acquire it. Witch-hunting was rampant then, and the fate of our 
treasured wands was left to the hands of our able wizard ancestors who ran into hiding, while 
their wives, sisters, daughters sacrificed their lives for their escape. 

Magic’s Beginnings 

Wizards can be traced back to the very beginnings of mankind, even during the time of the 
Neanderthals. Displays in the Australian museum of magic show rock paintings of people in 
loincloths brandishing one regular arm and one long, oddly-shaped arm. Australian wizards 
have studied their Aboriginal ancestors and their acquisition of what looks suspiciously like a 
wizard’s wand. Professor Milano Sundarian of the Australian Academy for Magic has always 
believed that magic was first born in the Australian outbacks, but was it really? 

In the 17th century, up north in the mountains of the Himalayas, a team of European wizards set 
up a campsite, initially to observe the habitat of the Yeti, and discovered remains of an ancient 
tunnel that led deep into the mountain, where it is believed that Himalayan wizards had set up a 
community before abandoning it for unknown causes. The tunnels date back to the time of the 
Ice Age. What kind of wizards lived in these tunnels? Were they as advanced as their Australian 

Research is still ongoing to predict the moment that the first wizard came to life. Theories have 
been proposed over the years, but none have yet proved the period when the first wizard emerged 
There are three controversial theories that have their supporters and their detractors. 

The Uno Mas Theory 

The Uno Mas Theory is the most popular of all theories of Wizarding beginning. The theory 
implies that all magical blood came from one man who was christened Uno Mas. Uno Mas was 
bom at the Time of the Reptiles, which Muggles call Dinosaurs. He was a stocky, built man 
with a head shaped like a gorilla’s head. He slouched and walked dragging his abnormally long 
limbs on the ground. Uno Mas manifested the same communication traits as those who lived 
during his time, communicating in grunts and pokes. Some theorists believe that Trolls also 
stem from Uno Mas but have not evolved as quickly as wizards did. 

Unlike the Muggle men of that time, Uno Mas had a keen sense of discovery. He would pick up 
pieces of wood and stone and fashion them into items which, at that time, meant nothing, but 
were the beginning of the wizards’ aspiring quality to improve and to develop. While the Muggle 

men focused more on food acquisition and mating, Uno Mas was busy creating many things. 
Some believe he developed the first wheel, but no solid proof has been found to back up this 

The theory also explains that Uno Mas made the first wand. Stories have circulated that it came 
from the bonfire from which fire began. Others say that it belonged to a very high, prehistoric 
tree, a branch from which Uno Mas picked up and threw, frustrated that the fruit did not fall 
when he shook the tree, hitting a fruit and causing it to fall. Full details about the Theory of Uno 
Mas can be found in The First Wizard: Uno Mas, written by renowned wizard archaeologist, 

William Marangue. Its counterpart. The Anti-Uno Mas Theory, written by wizard activist Josiah 
Loppet, also sheds some light on the theory’s shortcomings. 

The Great Migration Theory 

As seen in animal behaviour, migration is a normal survival method. Migratory routes As seen 
in animal behaviour, migration is a normal survival method. Migratory routes have been 
monitored to discover the whereabouts of our wizard ancestors’ birthplaces and their burial 
grounds. In this theory, wizards, unaware of their abilities and still mingling with the Muggles in 
an effort to survive the natural conditions, would travel with them to wherever the food source 
would travel. Sometime during the Descent of Blizz, called by Muggles “the Ice Age,” these 
wizards, having discovered their unique gift, set up their own group, left their non-magical 
brethren, and began their own journey around the world. They still followed the migratory 
routes, which are still being researched by wizards and Muggles alike, but the wizards’ tracks 
lead into non-existence. 

In 1535, a Chinese explorer named Ho Mao Tseng followed these tracks before stopping in the 
middle of a deserted area in the shadow of the Swiss Alps. At the time, Prior Incantato had not 
yet been invented, so Tseng only deduced that the entire group died in an avalanche, but in the 
early 1800s, a group of Gringotts’ curse breakers unearthed the spells that hid their lair from the 
world. An underground chamber, much like the Himalayan tunnel, was discovered, and a few 
artefacts remained intact, encased in a block of ice. Tools, clothing, and a few of their other 
items held magical properties, including a vanishing cloak that held a number of diricrawl 
feathers and unicorn horns made into necklaces. Bodies were never found, but it is believed that 
these ancient wizards abandoned the tunnel and decided to go their separate ways and thus 
created the societies that exist today. 

The Theory of Hocus Pocus 

The Theory of Uno Mas focuses on the first wizard. The Theory of Hocus Pocus focuses on the 
first encounter with magic. According to historians of the Brussels Museum of Ancient Magical 
History, magic was first encountered even before that fateful first controlled fire. The museum 

has a very broad collection of ancient note-taking materials and documents. Markings were 
written on bark, and researchers constantly make new discoveries for every new piece of 
evidence given to them. One tree bark told the story of how men chose their women, and it 
wasn’t the Muggle interpretation of hitting your woman with a giant club and dragging her by 
her hair. It was actually a very simple test. Women prefer strong men, so naturally, the strongest 
man would have his pick of women to choose from. However, men of that time also wanted a 
particular kind of woman: submissive, but with a great deal of talent. The writing goes on to say 
that it was the women who chose the men by presenting their chosen mate a tamed man-eating, 
giant lizard. At that time, women were naturally gifted with the power of persuasion. The woman 
with the most powerful sense of persuasion, the one who could win the heart of a man-eating, 
giant lizard and live to show it off to her future in-laws, would gain the honour of claiming that 
man. Muggles who were able to decipher the tree barks were considered mad or ‘loony,’ and 
thus, this theory gained little support from the Muggles who believe that magic exists. 

Young wizards should bear in mind that without magic, there would be no witch or wizard, and 
it should be given great respect and used for the promotion of the human race. 

The indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Native Americans, were a highly 
diverse group of people, spanning from what is now modern Canada down to what is now 
modem Chile and Argentina. All of these societies had integrated tribes of both magic and non¬ 
magic (“Muggle”) peoples, with witches and wizards holding traditionally important roles in 
their communities. Of particular interest to magical history are the Clovis culture throughout the 
Americas, the Olmec peoples of Mexico, and the Maya of southern Mexico and northern Central 
America. The customs, cultures, and histories of each of these tribes are varied and rich. This 
section will provide an introduction to the influences that witches and wizards have had on these 
cultures and how these cultures have influenced current magical communities, particularly in the 
areas that the tribes were formerly concentrated. 

Migration to the Americas 

The first peoples were believed to have migrated to the Americas between 28,000 and 10,000 B. 
C.E. Muggles commonly believe that the first peoples migrated from Asia to a far-northern part 
of North America by a land bridge that has since been covered by the modern day Bering Strait. 
Magical historians agree on this point as the migration occurred prior to the invention of 
broomsticks and before the development of the Apparition method of transportation. It is, 
however, believed by prominent magical historians that the migration would have been 
extremely difficult, if not impossible, without witches and wizards who assisted the ancient 
Muggles by providing Healings, multiplying existing food supplies, and using a primitive Point 
Me spell for navigational support. Once in the Americas, the peoples migrated across the 
entirety of the North and South American continents, creating separate civilisations with 
different cultures and belief systems, but in all of them, high importance was placed on the 
magical peoples in the communities, partly because of the help that primitive witches and 
wizards gave to their Muggle companions on the journey. 

Clovis Culture 

The Clovis people are widely believed to have been the very first people to live in the Americas, 
though there is some recent debate among Muggles as to the accuracy of that fact, due to new 

Muggle dating methods in the field of ‘science.’ The noted magical historians who specialise in 
ancient times remain of the persuasion that the Clovis were, in fact, the first civilisation in the 
Americas that involved witches and wizards. The name ‘Clovis’ is fairly recent, originating in 
the 1930s with discoveries of various artefacts by Muggle archaeologists. While witches and 
wizards had pre-existing evidence of the existence of these people, to minimise confusion, 
magical historians chose to adopt the Muggle name for records. In this way, the study of history 
can be unencumbered by the barrier between magic and non-magic communities. The hope is 
that this will give future magical historians the option of using Muggle records to solidify and 
expand their knowledge, because, as science improves, it has proven more and more useful to the 
field of history for both magic and non-magic peoples. 

The Clovis peoples are known to have used both bone and ivory for tools; bone is believed to 
have been a Muggle idea, but the use of ivory appears to stem from Wizarding contributions in 
an effort to encourage their Muggle counterparts to use every part of slain animals, including the 
tusks of woolly mammoths. Many magical historians believe that, in addition, it was a primitive 
wizard who suggested the woolly mammoth as possible prey, offering his skills in magic to his 
fellow men to take down the mighty beast. Some magical historians believe that, without the aid 
of magic, Muggles would have been unable to kill such huge animals, though this is a source of 
contention among many historians who debate whether witches and wizards give less credit than 
is possibly due to Muggle peoples. 

The Clovis people migrated all across North and South America and settled in many areas. 
Eventually, however, they began to decline. Magical historians believe that the decline was due 
to a combination of a decreased availability of megafauna, or big game, such as mastodons in 
the Americas, and a massive climatic cooling that made it difficult for the non-magic peoples to 
survive. While witches and wizards could perform simple Warming Charms, the Muggles often 
died due to complications of the cold, and the witches and wizards dispersed into other 
populations of people over time. When the Clovis people died out, some of their culture lived on 
in other primitive American peoples, but it was not until the 1930s that Muggles finally gave a 
name to this first culture that migrated across two vast continents. 

Olmec Peoples 

The Olmec was the first major civilisation in Mexico. The Olmec peoples lived in the tropical 
lowlands of south-central Mexico, where now are the modern-day states of Veracruz and 
Tabasco. The civilisation thrived during what is called the Mesoamerican Formative period, from 
about 1,500 B.C.E. to 400 B.C.E. From as early as 2,500 B.C.E., pre-Olmec civilisations had 
thrived in this area, but the Olmec did not really come into their own until 1,600 B.C.E. to 1,500 

Importantly, the Olmec had a very structured society, far more so than the more ancient Clovis 
peoples, who seem to have been less hierarchal. The Olmec were one of the first civilisations, 

along with the Maya (to be discussed below), to put witches and wizards in their own elite class 
of people within their communities, above the artisan, labourer, and farming classes. 

In the Olmec civilisation, witches and wizards made up the top two elite classes—the ruling 
class and the shaman class—and were just above the Muggle priest class. The ruling class was 
seen to have a direct link to deities worshipped by the Olmec, but many of these perceived links 
to the gods are thought now to have been accidental magic by young witches and wizards in the 
Olmec society. When these young people, with no control over their abilities, accidentally 
showed their magic, it was seen as a direct act by the gods to acknowledge them as the next 
ruler, and because even witches and wizards had very little knowledge of where their power 
came from at the time, it was widely believed to be divine intervention. Magical historians, 
through ancient records, have found this to be the most likely explanation as to how rulers with 
what were assumed to be direct links with gods were chosen, though there is still some debate 
among leading experts. 

The witches and wizards of the Olmec had a love of jade, obsidian, and magnetite luxury goods. 
Some evidence exists that points to witches and wizards using these materials in symbolic 
shapes for magical assistance, to enhance their power with the help of natural substances. Indeed, 
there have even been primitive obsidian- and jade-topped wands found by magical historians, 
though current research shows that these decorative tips may have actually inhibited magical 
power in the wands rather than enhanced it. Magnetite was a common material used for mortars 
and pestles by witches and wizards in the Olmec culture for it was believed that it enhanced the 
potency of draughts, but it has since been proven that, while some materials do work better with 
potions, magnetite is not one of them and that this was merely a superstition among the Olmec 
people based on the shininess and prettiness of the material. 

The Great Pyramid is the most important feature of the Olmec people and marks one of the 
most important influences that witches and wizards had on the Muggles in Mexico at that time. 
Today, it is 112 feet tall and conical in shape, but when it was originally built, it was rectangular 
with stepped sides and inset comers. This pyramid was the largest Mesoamerican structure, and 
it would not have happened without magical assistance. To this day, Muggles puzzle over 
wonders such as the pyramids, but magical historians know that magic peoples helped the non¬ 
magic peoples of the time build tributes to their mutual gods. Primitive witches and wizards 
used sorcery to lighten the loads of Muggle labourers and also to help perfect the shape and 
symmetry of such monuments. The Great Pyramid was the largest Muggle-magic collaboration 
in the Olmec civilisation. 

A large part of culture is art, and the Olmec had a striking artistic feature that makes their 
artefacts stand out from other art from the time period: they made colossal heads, often over 9 
feet tall. While Muggles have puzzled over this for centuries, magical historians know that this 
is another important example of the influence that witches and wizards had on their Muggle 
tribesmen. Witches and wizards had encouraged idolisation of the head because they had 
already come to understand that the brain was what separated humans from animals, and the 
witches and wizards of the day believed that there were key differences in the brains of magic 

and non-magic peoples that separated them in terms of ability. 

Between 400 B.C.E. and 350 B.C.E., the Olmec civilisation faded. Muggle research points to 
the reasons for this being mostly environmental, but many magical historians are of the belief 
that the magic and non-magic peoples of the Olmec ceased to exist together as peacefully as 
they had before. Some evidence points to the non-magic peoples choosing to branch out and live 
separate from the ruling and shaman classes, but, after such reliance on magical help in every 
aspect of life-from agriculture to building to medicinal needs-they found themselves woefully 
unprepared. The magic peoples, likely insulted by the insinuation that their peers no longer 
wanted their help, had moved on by the time that the Muggles changed their minds, and the 
Olmec society fell apart, their decline sped up by the environmental changes that Muggle 
science says is the main reason behind the Olmec decline. 

Maya Peoples 

The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilisation that occupied southern Mexico and northern Central 
America around the same time that the Olmec culture was thriving in south-central Mexico. 

However, the Mayan culture lasted much longer, having had their zenith in the Common Era (C. 
E.), and are, in fact, still in existence today. The Maya are noted for being the only 
Mesoamerican civilisation to have had a fully formed written language and also for significant 
mathematical, architectural, artistic, and astronomical advances, much of which can be 
attributed to the Wizarding influence in Mayan culture. 

The Mayan civilisation can be divided into several historical blocks of time. Of interest in this 
chapter are the Early Preclassic period, which covers roughly from 2,000 B.C.E. to 1,000 B.C.E., 
and the Middle Preclassic period, which spans from 1,000 B.C.E. to 400 B.C.E. 

The Early Preclassic period is significant because this marks the time when the Mayan peoples 
began to change their lifestyle from hunter-gatherer nomadic peoples to agricultural village 
societies. Magical historians are of the belief that this gradual change was, in part, due to the 
magic peoples in the Mayan culture who found it more profitable to plant food than chase after 
it. It is believed that the witches and wizards in the Mayan civilisation used their magic to assist 
the Muggles in their farming and benefited from such by being able to use extra ingredients in 
their potions, an art the Mayan witches and wizards were very interested in advancing, but had 
been unable to do so properly when their people had been constantly moving from place to place. 

Due to the proximity of the Olmec, the two fledgling civilisations traded with each other and 
each influenced the other. Both societies had written systems, though the Mayan system was 
more advanced and based on phonetics rather than symbols that represented ideas (like Egyptian 
hieroglyphs), and both made important mathematical and astronomical advances; both 
civilisations used the concept “zero” and both used calendars. 

By the year 1,000 B.C.E., the Middle Preclassic period had begun. The society had become 
more complex as it developed roots in a community rather than moving about as nomads. Luxury 
goods for the elite began to surface, such as jade mosaics and, notably, obsidian mirrors. 

Magical historians believe that ancient wizards experimenting with the art of Divination used 
these mirrors as primitive scrying tools. There is evidence that they were very popular among 

the “fortune-tellers” of the day, though current Diviners would have laughed at such a material 
being used for Divination today. During this period, the Olmec were at their cultural zenith, 
their highest point, and the Maya were on their way up. The relations between the two trading 
civilisations is thought to have been positive as the Maya were heavily influenced by Olmec 
culture, in everything from diet (maize and, notably, the cocoa plant) to worship (jaguars were 
central to both religions), and even language. 

The architecture of the Mayan civilisation was fairly advanced for the time period. Most 
important to magical history is the notion that the temples and pyramids of Mayan civilisation 
were remodelled every 52 years, in accordance to their calendar. Muggles have speculated on 
this and are, to date, unsure whether or not this happened, but magical historians are of the mind 
that it did. In fact, the magical historians believe that it was the witches and wizards of the 
Mayan community that initiated this idea, because, in numerology, 52=5+2=7. Seven is and, 
even in ancient times, was an important number in magic, and the Mayan witches and wizards 
recognised that, consciously using it in their temple and pyramid upkeep. 

Another important aspect of Maya culture that is rich with the influence of the ancient witches 
and wizards who lived among them is the importance of astronomy, and the advanced 
knowledge that the Mayans had of the skies. The lunar cycle was extremely important to them, 
primarily because of the influence that it had on potions with which the Mayans experimented. 
The influence of ancient witches and wizards gave primitive Muggles insight into the 
importance of such cycles. 

The integration of society is the primary cause of the extraordinary advances such ancient 
civilisations made. The influence magic peoples had on a primarily non-magic society cannot be 
ignored. Without primitive witches and wizards, these cultures likely would not have lasted as 
long as they did, nor would they have made many of the advances in astronomy and 
mathematics that they did without the influence of magic peoples. 

Throughout North, Central, and South America, the civilisations prior to 350 B.C.E. that 
migrated to the continents were strongly integrated. Witches and wizards, particularly in the 
Olmec and Mayan cultures, were held as elite members of society, revered for their abilities and 
their talents in astronomy and other magical arts. While less is known about the Clovis culture, 
the Mayan and Olmec both lived in agricultural villages and towns with a structured societal 
hierarchy, with most witches and wizards near the top or at the top of these chains. Materials 
such as obsidian, jade, and magnetite were frequently used in primitive magical tools, such as 
ancient wands, scrying mirrors, and mortars and pestles. The joint influence of non-magic 
peoples on magic peoples and vice versa led to a rich tapestry of culture that would have been 
nonexistent without such crucial cooperation among these now-segregated groups. 


One of the earliest known civilizations in the world, Mesopotamian civilization consisted of a 
variety of city-states. Although there is evidence for wizarding presences throughout all of these 
city-states, the city-states that show the most signs of early complex magic and potion-making 
are Sumer and Akkad. Archaeologists found an amulet in Sumer that had retained its magic for 
several millennia and was still so powerful that the archaeologists spent several months in St. 
Mungo’s, recovering from the magic’s effects. 

Indeed, Muggles in these societies revered their magical neighbours as Healers and Seers. Many 
of these witches and wizards were so powerful that they earned a permanent place in the 
civilizations’ religions and were thought to be divine beings by their Muggle neighbours. Take, 
for example, the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess Ishtar. Legends speak of her as having an all- 
consuming attractive force, making both animals and people fall madly for her and fall into 
depression once she left them. Magical historians believe that Ishtar brewed a primitive form of 
Amortentia and fed it to all of the people whom she desired. 

Another example of a wizard who became ingrained in Mesopotamian legend is Gilgamesh, the 
leading figure in one of the earliest known works of literature. In the Sumerian text, Gilgamesh is 
described as two-thirds god and one-third mortal and goes on an epic journey to find 
immortality. Archaeologists have found traces of extremely weak immortality potions in Sumer, 
suggesting that Gilgamesh attempted to extend his life magically. The Epic of Gilgamesh also 
features Gilgamesh’s fight against a fire-breathing beast called ‘Humbaba.’ Many historians 
believe this beast to actually have been an early ancestor of the Hungarian Horntail, which would 
correlate with their discovery of several large fossilized bones in the area. 

On the other hand, Mesopotamians also feared the influence of dark magic and occasionally 
slaughtered groups of wizards. Of course, these wizards are probably not entirely free of blame. 

A Babylonian Muggle’s text speaks of the severe pain that she endured at the hands of a wizard, 
who eventually managed to gouge out both of her eyes and several of her teeth without touching 
her face. Many magical historians believe that this incident inspired Hammurabi to create his 

famous code, featuring the law ‘eye for eye, tooth for tooth.’ 


The Phoenicians, a group of people who engaged in excessive maritime trading, are perhaps 
most known for their written alphabet. While Muggle historians have attempted to decode this 
alphabet, they have overlooked several key phrases that indicate that this alphabet was actually 
an early attempt at sharing discovered Charms. It is doubtful that the Phoenicians ever created 
wands, suggesting that these spells were meant to be performed wandlessly. (Phoenicians 
probably used various wand woods to engineer their sturdy boats, but did not discover their uses 
as wands.) One spell reads ‘rir-rir or wal lat ick nur geg’ and includes an introduction that 
suggests that it was an early form of ‘Vipera Evanesca,’ the Snake-Banishing Spell, used to fight 

against the serpents that tormented them from the steppes. Modern Charms experts have been 
unable to replicate the effects of this spell. The spells were formulated by priests in Byblos, but 
appeared in Egypt a few decades later, suggesting interaction between the two magical 

Indus River Valley 

Magic practices had such a strong hold in the Indus River Valley civilizations that almost 80% of 
their artefacts show traces of magic. They’d managed to channel magic through their bangles, 
beads, and vases. Although historians are unsure of the purpose of this magic, they speculate 
that the magic was for purposes other than defence. One small, etched bracelet carries traces of 
magic with a great resemblance to the Cheering Charm. 

As the caste system began to form, wizards gained a position at the top of society, alongside 
priests, or Brahmin. These wizards were central in protecting the village from the large 
community of Lahoo vampires, who terrorized the ancient Indians for several centuries. These 
wizards crafted highly advanced methods of warding off vampires, some of which are still used 
today, thus saving India. One Muggle wrote, ‘The demon man, with blood dripping from his 
fangs came to my home today, but he could not enter because of the garlic that the divine one, 
Lahsun, gave to me.’ Many suspect that the Indus River Valley civilization would not have 
endured without these wizards. 

Asian Steppes 

Magical historians did not care much about the Huns, a group of Asian nomads, until the late 
1970s. Previously, magical historians had thought that the Hun society was too crude to have 
had any magical presence. That all changed when one magical historian, Robert Meddleweb, 
stumbled across a Muggle historian’s account of the Huns, which described a strange 
phenomenon: ‘Some believe that the Huns just appeared in the Eastern Asian steppes. Of course, 
that’s impossible. However, archaeologists have been unable to find any artefacts explaining 
where the Huns came from,’ wrote Anna Zakowsky. 

Meddleweb quickly interpreted these findings to mean that the Huns had Apparated from some 

other area of China, leaving no trace of their travel—at least, none that Muggles could 
understand. Other historians doubt Meddleweb’s theory, including Harrison Byproo: ‘Apparating 
is not something that just happens by accident. Think about how difficult it is for sixth years to 
Apparate. Suggesting that an entire nation could Apparate successfully is outrageous.’ 

To this, Meddleweb countered, ‘Think of magic as an animal. Right now, we’ve managed to 
domesticate it, make it respond to certain words and behave predictably, more or less. Back then, 
it was far more uncontrollable but also significantly more powerful. We’ve toned it down to 
make it safer.’ Thus, the magic of the Huns allowed the entire community to spontaneously 
relocate. Of course, this incident would have also led to a great deal of adverse effects, for 
which Meddleweb has located substantial evidence. 

Much of the remnants of Hun skeletons show significant signs of deformation. Muggle 
archaeologists explained this away as ‘the wear of time,’ but magical historians understand these 
irregularities as signs of Splinching. However, the most impacting effect of the botched 
Apparition was the resulting magical hyperactivity from which the Huns suffered, as the 
Apparition had adverse effects on their intellectual and magical capabilities. Magical 
hyperactivity is a condition that has endured to this day, causing magic folk to release their 
magic in strong, uncontrollable bursts. This explains the brute force of the Huns as they invaded 
and destroyed neighbouring territories. 

As time went on and the Huns mixed with surrounding people, magical potency decreased in 
their communities. While magic became a rare talent, the Huns continued to respect those in 
their community who could perform magic. In fact, Atilla the Hun, the most notorious leader of 
the Huns, a Squib himself, surrounded himself with a staff of magical advisors and valued magic 
folk within his community. Atilla even went so far as to reconsider murdering the people whom 
he encountered if they performed a magic trick for him. 


Perhaps the most important role of ancient wizards in China was controlling the Yellow River. 
Early Chinese society was so harmonious and successful due to its mastery of the Yellow River, 
which was primarily a result of the work of wizards. Using Levitation Charms to build a dam and 
powerful Nature Spells, Chinese wizards managed to prevent the Yellow River from flooding. 
During periods of drought, these same wizards managed to sustain most of the civilization’s 
crops with an early form of Aguamenti. Chinese wizards also helped fend off the 
aforementioned Huns and other nomadic groups. However, Chinese magic was typically much 
more controlled and weaker than the brute force of the nomads’ magic, leading to constant 
foreign invasions. 

After the Warring States Period and the creation of Legalism, Chinese emperors began to create 
laws restricting wizards’ powers, claiming that the wizards were threatening the order of things 
within the community. Thus, wizards were forced to stop practicing magic, unless authorized to 

do so by the government. Any wizard in violation of this restriction was either exiled or banned. 

For great periods of time, Africa has been home to some very mysterious and powerful branches 
of magic, some of which might be considered somewhat dark. Since the continent’s earliest days, 
the African people are said to have witnessed many mystical phenomena: from black shooting 
stars in the middle of the day, seeds that sprouted fully grown trees overnight, and animals that 
spoke, to smoke that changed colours during tribal dances, possession, and sometimes even 
resurrection. Of course, those of us in magical society now know well enough that reports from 
so long ago have been greatly exaggerated. Take resurrection for example; it isn’t possible. But 
in the past the peoples of Africa thought it quite the opposite. All of these strange happenings 
would normally be attributed to fantasy or a bad dream, but the frequency with which these 
events took place left no doubt in the minds of the ancient Africans that there was something 
more going on. 

The general consensus seems to have been that spirits were channelling their energy into earthly 
things to prove their power and scare mortals into granting them certain favours. These ‘spirits’ 
would choose one member of the tribe and speak through them, and, in turn, the spirit would 
grant its host healing powers to help the rest of the tribe. These ‘chosen ones’ were called 
shamans which, translated into modem English, means ‘someone who knows,’ a name given to 
them because of their ability to know and understand the spirits and channel their magic. 

Their method of communicating with these spirits was through out-of-body experiences, and to 
reach this out-of-body state they would make special teas to initiate momentary lapses in their 
sanity which then allowed them to see these ‘almighty beings.’ (Muggles who study science, 
which comes from the Latin word for knowledge and is the Muggle study and organization of the 
natural world into logical and rational explanation, throughout time have proved out-of-body 
experiences to be no more than common hallucinations.) Through the research done over time 
by herbologists, potioneers, et cetera, however, we have discovered through analysis of 
ingredients and examination of the results of these teas that most of the time they’re very poorly 
executed brews of Aberration Draught and mind-altering potions. 

Further research did conclude that the shamans were of magical blood, but not knowing how to 

use or control their powers, they ended up using badly brewed potions as their gateway into the 
magic that resided within them. These interesting people were no more than primitive wizards 
who lacked the ability to concentrate the force in their blood, which resulted in a very hit-or- 
miss system to try to understand it. It’s impressive enough that they managed the potions that 
they did with absolutely no prior knowledge on anything magical at all. Despite all of this, 
though, the superstitions that dark forces from the beyond existed in our world and that there 
were some humans that could use them lasted throughout the years with devastating results for 
the innocent people involved. The worldwide hunting and burning of Muggle women believed 
to be witches is proof enough of that. 

Witchcraft became, in later years, somewhat of a religion and is still one of the most dreaded 
superstitions in Africa. Africans believe that witches are powerful, seductive beings that can use 
magic to alter the course of human life for better or worse-though more often for worse than for 

the better-and thus they accept magic as an explanation for any mystical or mysterious 
phenomenon, even when their Muggle common sense is telling them otherwise. 

Whether these mystical attributes and mysterious beings were real or imagined, it’s safe to say 
that ancient African civilizations understood magic to be powerful and frightening, and thus it 
was worshipped beyond any deity. Ancient Egypt, the most developed magical community in 
the country, gives us exceptional information about how magic turned into such religious belief. 
Ancient Egyptian mythology states that magic, or heka as they called it, was the mighty force 
that created the universe and was therefore more powerful than even the gods themselves. By 
using magic, symbolism would turn into reality and help Egyptians join the gods in paradise. 
Magic in Egypt was seen not only as another field of knowledge but a force created solely for the 
benefit of mankind and so was used to manipulate the gods for human purposes. 

Egyptian Magic 

Egyptians were amongst the first civilizations to study magic and create rules and rituals as to 
how it would be used; they laid a basic foundation for the rest of us to build upon. Priests were 
sacred because of their ability to communicate with the gods (a reflection of the African 
shamans), and therefore, they were the ones who were allowed to practice magic without 
restrictions in order to obtain the power of the god that they were invoking. Of course, those 
with true magical blood were hard to ‘restrict;’ instead there were severe punishments for anyone 
caught practicing that hadn’t the right. To avoid punishment, some wizards would seek 
apprenticeship with the priests while others used their gifts away from the public eye, but 
because it was widely believed that some had more power than others, those practicing in secret 
rarely attempted complex magic and usually everyone was “kept in place.” But we all know that 
sometimes uncontrolled magic is difficult to keep hidden, and, while rare, magical practice 
outside of the priest class wasn’t unheard of. 

Having unlimited legal access to magic, Egyptian priests began to study the possibility of certain 
objects making it easier to channel their mystical powers for the greater good. Purity was a legal 
requirement for a person to be able to perform a spell. Because ivory was already known to be a 

purifying substance and natural shield from negative energies, it became necessary for wizards of 
ancient Egypt to carry ivory amulets with them as proof that they were pure and could call upon 
the gods to make them do their bidding. The need for the ivory item to be practical, unique, and 
efficient in its channelling of pure magic gave birth to the continent’s first magical wands. These 
magic wands were nothing like our current and comparatively superb wands with magical cores 
and the added power of the wood; they were merely semi-circular pieces of ivory with carvings 
of the most powerful beings slaying dark creatures from end to end. 

Wandmakers and wandlore scholars debate to this day whether or not these ivory wands had any 
magical properties. It is still customary for the wandmakers of Egypt, and even of most of 
Africa, to use ivory in their wands. Regardless of this debate, all parties agree that the old style 
ivory wand does balance the power within the wizard using it, helping him to perform more 
stable spells and stopping dark magic from being used; as African wizards believe that ivory 
keeps their minds pure, they have no desire to explore the darker side of their power. 

Egyptian Secrecy 

Egyptian wizards were very keen on keeping their magic to themselves. Considering the 
religious belief that good deeds were what granted or denied someone the chance to join the gods 
in the paradise of the afterlife, wizards from Egypt made sure that they performed as much good 
magic as possible, and the most effective way to achieve that was to make sure that they were the 
ones that the people sought out to sort out whatever troubles or illnesses came along. In order to 
do this, they had to keep their spells and rituals a secret so that other wizards weren’t privy to 
take over their practice. The ancient Egyptians kept books that they passed down from 
generation to generation full of useful spells that only they knew, not to be shared with anyone, 
just like some families in today’s world, mostly those of spellmakers. The ancient Egyptian 
wizards even came up with strange combined words and secret names for the gods that had to be 
pronounced in certain way or the spell would not work, effectively doing exactly as spellmakers 
do today, putting words and actions together to make new spells. Thus, if someone stole or 
peeked into the journals in which they wrote the proceedings of their enchantments and rituals, 
the culprit would not be able to understand the words needed to make the magic happen, and 
therefore, no one but the wizard who’d written it or one whom he had taught would be able to 
perform it to aid others. This practice of casting spells by muttering nonsensical words that 
somehow brought out the magic within them became quite popular and soon all of Egypt and 
parts of Africa into which the practice had bled were teeming with papyrus scrolls full of spells 
that no one but the person who wrote them could perform. 

There is a faction of wizards that work alongside the curse breakers for Gringotts that visit 
Egypt to see if they can find any of this lost magic, translate it, and find use for it. Curse 
breakers are necessary in Egypt because greed provoked ancient wizards to place curses upon 
tombs. Most people in Egypt were entombed with riches and luxury, believing that the soul 
would return to the body, taking everything left with it into their next life. However some 
wizards who had discovered their power but were not or had not pursued the path to become a 
priest soon discovered that the ancient Egyptian belief system was inaccurate. Only those with 

magical blood can become and see ghosts, so from the imprints left by deceased wizards these 
ancient Egyptian wizards found out that the afterlife that they all so prepared for didn’t work at 
all how they had thought, and thus, all the gold and riches left in the tombs were going to waste. 
Banded together in this knowledge that none of the others knew, the wizards of ancient Egypt 
set curses and traps for any thieves that might enter so that the wizards themselves could return 
to claim things as they needed them. Also, some of those bom of magic truly did believe in their 
theory of an afterlife, regardless of any extra knowledge that they might have been given by 
ghosts, and they set their own traps and enchantments on the tombs to keep the treasures inside 
safe from intruders, to ensure that the deceased inside got to keep their things for when they 

The need for international magical cooperation in later times, along with the discovery of 
nonverbal spells, led the Egyptian practice of creating new words for magic rituals to its demise. 
However, the fact remained that a standard spell wording of sorts had to be created, not just 
because of the language barrier between wizards of so many different places, but also because of 
the growing number of Muggle-born wizards all over the world. To remain hidden has been our 
world’s greatest task for a very long time, and if the language and words in which magic used to 
be performed was not regulated, Muggle-born children, oblivious to their abilities, could cause a 

disaster simply by saying one or two words out loud in their common tongue. It is because of this 
that an international summit of wizarding leaders from all over the world took place back in the 
early days. This meeting lasted an extremely long time because the people involved took to 
investigating and retelling the history of our world in order to find a solution, and this, in turn, 
led to the standardization of Latin as the language for most spells, enchantments, and spoken 
magic in general. This council debated, discussed and tested the aforementioned magic in an 
effort to determine an official, or at least agreed upon by the majority, list of spells for the 
wizarding world. They collected the most potent words from a myriad of cultures and languages 
to form The Standard Book of Spells, which is still used in schools today. 

If you’ll take notice, however, the etymology for spells is rarely Egyptian. This is not because 
their words for magic are less powerful than another cultures, per se, but is mostly due to the 
fact that Egyptians have maintained a strict secrecy about their spells and magic. In present 
times they are much more open and accommodating to the council, but discovering their lost 
magic has proven extremely difficult and is one among many reasons Egypt is known as the 

‘Land of Secrets.’ 

Ancient Greece 

To the ancient Greeks, it was quite important that citizens honour the gods. If something 
abnormal or bad happened, it was usually blamed on the wrath of a certain deity, when, actually, 
it was a person of magical blood being less subtle than normal. Because most everything out of 
the ordinary was blamed on the gods, witches and wizards had an easier time blending in with 
the Muggle population in ancient Greece than they did in the European Middle Ages, when witch 
hunts were quite popular. Not only did they blend in more easily, some wizards and witches were 
quite helpful to the Muggles, although that term was not then used to describe non-magic folk. 
For example, in 447 B.C., Perikles began to plan a magnificent building that would later be 
named the Parthenon. This was a temple dedicated to goddess Athena. Because of it was a 
massive undertaking, no one was quite sure how it would be possible to build such a temple. But 
Perikles was of magical blood, and therefore, every night, after the workers left, he could build 
with magic just enough to keep alive the hope that something of this scale could be built. There 
are many other instances of witches and wizards helping their non-magic brethren, particularly in 
war. If not for magical blood, the Greeks could have very well lost the Greco-Persian Wars in the 
fifth century B.C. of which the famous battles of Marathon and Thermopylae are a part. 

As a prisoner of the Greeks, Phillip II of Macedonia observed their military tactics. Returning 
to his own country, he used his newly acquired insights to strengthen Macedonia to the Greeks 
peril. By the time of his death in 336 B.C., Sparta and a small colony near Byzantium was all of 
Greece that remained free of Macedonian rule. 

Phillip II’s son Alexander the Great expanded the Macedonian empire to enormous proportions, 
but the bickering of his sons tore the empire apart, and left the way open for Rome, which had 
conquered both Macedonia and Greece by 145 B.C., to become the dominant Mediterranean and 
world power. 

Ancient Rome 

The Romans were a little less lenient about magic than the ancient Greeks, however they were 
still a very deity-centred society, so most magic still passed unnoticed. At its very beginning, in 

the 8th century B.C., Rome was just many huts filled with men. Because of the lack women, they 
knew that their race would eventually die out. Those men learned in the magical arts, prominent 
among them Romulus, Rome’ founder, made love potions and gave some to women of the 
neighbouring Sabine tribe. Under the potions’ power, the Sabine women became the mothers of 
the future Roman race. Although it may seem unethical to a modem audience to use a love 
potion simply to procreate, in those times it was not frowned upon, and the potions masters were 
even celebrated as heroes. (In Muggle legend, the men just kidnap the Sabine women because 
the Muggles at the time could not understand why the women were suddenly interested in the 
Roman men.) 

Roman wizards and witches did not remain the heroes of Rome forever, however. By 451 B.C., 
magic was curtailed by Roman law. The Twelve Tables of the decemviri legibus scribundis 
forbid harmful incantations and the use of magic to move a neighbour’s crops to one’s own field. 
The dictator Sulla in 81 B.C. imposed further bans on magical practices, including love-spells 
and poisons, with his Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis. Laws against magic escalated and 
culminated in numerous calls for the banishment of all magic folk, which Roman wizards and 
witches circumnavigated by using their powers secretly or with discretion; banishment was 
decreed by numerous Roman rulers at different times. 

In 133 B.C. the senator Tiberius Gracchus, a wizard whose senatorial career is better 
remembered by Muggles for his radical ideas of land redistribution to the plebeian masses, 
proposed to the wizards that Muggles needed to learn their place under wizards. This is the first 
time that a wizard publically claimed superiority over his non-magic fellow Roman citizens. 
Although he convinced a few, his ideas were so unpopular that he was killed. Whether the 
senators, including his own cousin, Scipio Nasica, who clubbed him to death were against his pro 
plebeian or his anti-Muggle radicalism is a question no history books answer. 

Rome at its height dominated most of the then-known world with an empire stretching from the 
shores of the Caspian Sea west to modern-day Spain, from the Northern African coast to 
Hadrian’s Wall, the original border between Britain and the unconquered land of the Piets 
(modern-day northern Scotland). In the midst of this domination, wizards and witches of 
different cultures, brought together by learning of the empire’s language, Latin, shared 
information. This trade of ideas led to the first meeting of the Consilium Imperii Magi (CIM or 
the Council of the Empire’s Wizards), which met in Rome in 132 A.D. This council of 
international wizards examined magical history and culminated in the creation of the original 
Standard Book of Spells, a compilation of the most potent spells of the different cultures, 
comprising of spells for every action yet done by magic. This first Book of Spells was published 
in Latin. Latin being the dominant language of the time, many of the spells included were based 
on this tongue. Other spells come from Aramaic and Greek to name a few. This Standard Book 

of Spells forms the basis for our modem Book. Additions are made by CIM, which has met 
every fifty years since for this purpose. 

The first known culture to have practiced a modicum of magic in Europe was known as the Bell- 
Beaker culture, which occupied both the European Stone and Bronze ages, ending around 1900 
B.C.E. Best known today as a simple people who made their mark on history through a curious 
pottery style, not much is recorded about their origin. During this time, the most beneficial 
contribution to society that can be contributed to Wizardkind is the idea of symbols becoming 
text. Young witches and wizards practiced drawing the shapes that wands make during 
particular spells. When questioned, they introduced the idea of using symbols to convey words. 
For a while their advice was brushed off as quirky nonsense, but the idea eventually took hold. 
Several unexplained phenomena occurred during Bell-Beaker times which baffle Muggles to 
this day, but these can be illuminated by lesser-known wizarding folklore. The most notable of 
these phenomena, perhaps, is Stonehenge in England, known by Muggles as one of the “Seven 
Ancient Wonders of The World.” They have proposed several theories as to how the landmark 
came to be, but the theory that occasionally touches the truth lies in a legend about Stonehenge’s 
heel stone, known as “The Friar’s Heel.” 

Muggle Frank Stevens, curator of the Salisbury Museum, records the legend of the Friar’s Heel 
in his book Stonehenge—To-day & Yesterday. It is in sum this: 

In his wanderings, the Devil, the villain of many Muggle myths of the time, had seen some huge 
stones in the back garden of an old Irish woman, and he thought to move these stones from her 
garden to the stoneless Salisbury Plain so as to sew confusion in men’s minds for all time. 

Before he could begin his mischief, he needed to obtain the woman’s permission, but she met 
his petitions with refusal until finally he played upon her greed and, knowing that the old 
woman’s mathematical skills were poor, agreed that she could have all the money that she could 
count in the time that it took him to remove the stones from her garden. He handed her a 
pitiable sum in coins and set to work. The poor woman had had time to add barely two coins 
together before the Devil had prised the stones from the ground, tied them neatly together, and 
slung them across his back. 

Having obtained the stones, the Devil flew away to the Salisbury Plain, but the stones were so 

heavy that the willow strap cut into his shoulder. The Devil bore the pain as long he could, but 
finally had to shift his bundle. One stone fell from the pack and lies at the bottom of the River 
Avon. This stone near Bulford, England is offer as supposed verification of the tale’s truth. 
Arriving at the Plain, the Devil deposited his heavy burden and set to work arranging the massive 
stones. Revelling in his mischief, the Devil boasted aloud that he would puzzle men for all time 
with this project. 

His cry was overheard by a passing friar (a Muggle of the Christian faith who lives according to 
certain rules), who replied and was unfortunately heard in turn by the Devil. The Devil, enraged 
by the discovery of his mischief, hurled a stone at the friar as the man fled from the Devil. The 

stone struck the friar’s heel, but the friar was unhurt while the stone still bears the imprint of the 
friar’s heel. 

Just then, the sun rose and the Devil, who cannot abide sunlight, had to stop, and the stone 
remained where it had fallen. 

While this story shares the same outcome and a similar theme as the true story, the main 
character was a wizard, not the Devil, and is the ‘good’ character, while the old woman is the 
‘bad.’ Gerbert DeBolbec, a well-off wizard who lived near the Salisbury Plain with his wife 
Josselyn, practiced magic quite subtly, but strengthened his skills by affecting nature rather than 
typical inanimate objects. His lands were inordinately prosperous but not so much as to arouse 
alarm in surrounding townspeople. One neighbour, a hag by the name of Cedany, resented his 
fortune. As a hag, she was only able to produce rudimentary magic, but she often reached 
beyond her means with unpredictable results. Josselyn, in an attempt to improve relations 
between their households, came to Cedany with an offer to extend magical protections to her 
land. In a fit of jealous rage, Cedany insisted that she was powerful enough to protect herself, 
and in her effort to prove herself she turned the contents of her grounds—trees, bushes, and 
Josselyn—into stone. Realizing her mistake—and knowing that Gerbert would be 
unforgiving—she fled. When Gerbert deduced the whereabouts of his wife, he destroyed 
Cedany’s house, and, grief-stricken and unable to tell which one was his wife, loaded the large 
stones into a pack that he enchanted with an Undetectable Extension Charm and went in search 
of the hag. The bag had a loose seam, and one of the rocks—incidentally, the one that was 
formerly Gerbert’s wife—fell out to land in the River Avon. He realized much later that one of 
the stones was missing. Helplessly, he wept bitter tears, which soon turned to mindless tears of 
fury. Upon finding the hag, he cast the most powerful spell that had been attempted in history 
thus far, entrapping Cedany in an enchanted circle of the stones. He then continued hurling 
stones in an attempt to squash his enemy. The stone that dealt her death blow ricocheted to land 
farther away as the heel stone, carrying with it the imprint of her body later known as the Friar’s 
Heel. When the magnitude of the magical energy that he had spent caught up to him, the broken 

wizard died of exhaustion. 

(Legends like that of the Friar’s Heel were created when Muggles could find no other 
explanation. Unlike other areas whose religions embraced magic, prevailing European churches 
of the Common Era, from which their legend of the Friar’s Heel comes, shunned magic as an 
explanation, preferring instead a clerical “because I said so” mindset. Scientific explanations 
were unacceptable as well, and many of that era’s most groundbreaking scientists were 
incorrectly labelled as sorcerers.) 

Christianity began its rapid spread across Europe early in the Common Era (C.E.). Most of the 
technological advances of the time were made by Muggles, as wizards and witches lived too far 
from one another and were too and were too fearful of religious fallout to draw too much 
attention to themselves. This explains why technology moved so slowly. 

Pagans and occultists made up most of those who practiced magic in Christian Europe, and they 
were a spurned minority. There were also rare instances of shamanism, but the influence of 

Abrahamic religions and their conflict with the supernatural kept most witches and wizards in 
hiding. Many Roman and Egyptian laws of the time reflected this belief. 

This lack of tolerance, more than anything, contributed to the eventual detachment of wizarding 
and Muggle societies. The dangers of revealing oneself were so great that they eventually led to 
the International Statute of Secrecy. 

Early Magical Advances 

Separate from the prying eyes of Muggles, magical theory and skills were being advanced at a 
glacial pace. Some of the most impacting developments were made in wandlore. Without the 
creation of the written word, most prehistoric findings on wandlore have been lost. What we 
have today are legends and rumours that have been built upon to create the theories of modem 

Because wandlore is such an inexact and involved science, the Ollivanders are worth mention in 
prehistoric wizardry. Wandlore is passed down from master to apprentice, and it is often a 
family business. Geraint Ollivander was one of the most skilled wandmakers in history, and he, 
along with his ancestors and descendants alike, created a lucrative wandmaking business that is 
considered the best of all time, with the possible exception of Gregorovitch’s wand shop in more 
modem times. 

The adoption of international businesses such as wandmaking and the increasing ease of travel 
with the rise in Muggle trading during the Common Era began to unite witches and wizards 
from all ends of the globe. A cesspool of knowledge resulted in rapidly evolving magical theory, 
which was readily available. Before these times, magical knowledge was sectionalized by 
geography, and hard to build upon. Naturally, the evolution of magic would require some 
necessary changes to wizarding lifestyles, beginning with education. 

The need for wizarding schools became apparent as society changed. Schools would make it 
possible for young witches and wizards to accumulate more knowledge in one year than could 
ever be taught by parents who knew only what their parents had shown them. 

Since the earliest recorded history, nonmagic peoples (“Muggles”) have defined magic as a 
mystical power derived from the gods and goddesses of their culture. They explained away this 
natural phenomenon by attributing it to the supernatural, to their religious deities, in an effort to 
explain what could not be explained. Indeed, even some witches and wizards of ancient times 
believed that their own powers came from the gods and goddesses, for they lacked the 
knowledge and intense study in the pathways of magic that have been since studied. In the 
beginning, most cultures respected and even revered witches and wizards living in their societies, 
elevating them to ever-higher statuses - priests, shamans, rulers. Eventually, however, the 
Muggles began to fear and condemn the practises of their fellow witches and wizards. The rise of 
Judaism and Christianity were especially well known for a dramatic change in Muggle-Wizard 

In Buddhism, suffering is made into an automatic part of life, while pleasure is seen as 
something fleeting that, if pursued, can lead its hunter into a never-ending quest to quench a 
thirst for bliss that will never be satiated, as it will only grow stronger. The seeking of pleasure, 
be it through sexual urges, riches, or immortality, is one of the roots of suffering, according to 
Buddhists. They see these cravings as desires that will never be satisfied; therefore, having them 
will only bring suffering. The other root is ignorance, for it is the inability to understand the 
world as it is, to grasp the nature of things, and that brings along a stream of negative emotions 
(anger, envy, hatred, etc.) that, again, will only bring suffering. 

This is why the followers of the Buddhist religion try to find perpetual peace through 
meditation; to be able to know and understand the world and rid themselves of their earthly 
desires so they can live without suffering and be reborn into a better life instead of reaching the 
afterlife full of the despair they fear so much. 

The truth about the end of suffering relates to two different things: the end of physical suffering 
through death, or the end of emotional or mental suffering through reaching Nirvana, a state of 
spiritual enlightenment that can only be achieved by carrying an impeccable moral conduct. It 
is the belief of the Buddhist people that once the suffering in this life has ended, they are sent to 
another plane, good or bad, depending on how they behaved during their time on Earth. If sent 
to one of the three positive planes, they can be reborn as demigods, gods, or men. 

In earlier times, Muggles who reached Nirvana often turned out to be magically gifted, and 
their spiritual revelation was nothing but the magic they had in them all along finally making 
itself present after being suppressed by a lifestyle full of meditation and the neglect of one’s 
emotions, which are known to bring out the magic in those who possess it when they are at a 

This is not to say that meditating is bad by any means. It has been known that many Buddhist 
monks who have said to have achieved Nirvana are actually Squibs who, through deep 
concentration and faith, have managed to feel the magic they are incapable of using. Some have 
even managed to perform simple spells when concentrated hard enough on what they want to 

achieve, but nothing beyond that. As wizards, it can be somewhat difficult to understand why 
someone would seek such things when there’s a spell for practically everything, but it is, some 
say, one of the most admirable qualities of the Muggle world to have faith in something pure 
and mighty that can explain every single thing in the universe. 

We’ve established, then, that Buddhism is mainly about understanding the world as it is and 
dealing with suffering, its cause and its end as a part of life on this earth in order to be reborn 
into a plane where suffering does not exist. Or, if one is reborn into the world of men, to have a 
second chance to achieve Nirvana. Taking all this into account, we could say that wizards are, in 
fact, considered part of the privileged few who have reached that state of spiritual freedom, 
seeing as how the many interpretations of Nirvana always lead back to the most basic forms of 
magic. To be able to use and channel magic gives a person the ability to make their life easier 
while also giving them a quality to understand the world in a much better way than a Muggle 

could. That is admired by Buddhists, even when they don’t truly grasp the concept of wizardry 
and mainly see our kind as admirable, reborn spirits of some ancient life who were blessed 
enough to be sent back and show this world how to end suffering. Buddhist monks even show 
their admiration by wearing robes not unlike a wizard’s. It is, we should say, a subliminal part of 
their religion to be in awe of wizards, as we symbolize the better life they seek to be reborn into. 

Christianity evolved out of Judaism and, as such, believes in many of the same basic tenets. In 
Judaism, the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings are divided into 24 Books in the Hebrew 
Bible. The basis of Christianity is, therefore, the same as the basis of Judaism and their early 
texts are markedly similar, as are many of their basic beliefs. Christianity continued in the vein 
of Judaism in that it was a monotheistic religion. Christians, instead of using the term Yahweh, 
preferred the term God and that is what Christians call their deity today. 

The New Testament of the Christian Bible is where Judaism and Christianity diverge from the 
same path into two separate ones. The Messiah is where the two religions cannot agree. Both 
agree that a Messiah will or does exist, that this figure will be a redeemer of mankind, a leader 
in moral and religious matters as well as political and military matters. The disagreement comes 
into play as to whether or not the Messiah has come. Jewish followers believe that the Messiah 
has yet to appear on Earth while Christians believe that the Messiah is Jesus Christ, later 
Crucified and believe that Jesus died for the sins of mankind, thus fulfilling the redemption role. 
Though there are many witches and wizards who are Christian, the Muggle vein of Christianity 
heavily rejects magic. Some sects are very strict in believing it is evil or Satanic, condemning all 
witches and wizards (see Witch Burnings) while other Muggles have dismissed the idea of magic 
as mere superstition to not be taken seriously at all. Wizards have amended Christianity slightly 
so that, while they still celebrate the major Christian events (Christmas, Easter), magic is not 
condemned. Nonmagic peoples have a long history of condemning that which they do not 
understand or that which they fear and wizard Christians widely believe that it was Muggle 
churches that condemned magic and not the religion itself. In this way, witches and wizards 
continue to be able to hold their beliefs without feeling like they must suppress their true selves 
to appease a higher power. 

While most Muggle Christianity denounces magic as evil, the Catholic Church recognises 
Healings and Visions (Divination) as possible and has recognised specific people as having such 
Gifts. Some of these Saints were witches or wizards in their own right, documented by magical 
historians as individuals trying to bridge the gap between Muggles and magical communities, but 

many of theses Saints were either Muggle-born witches and wizards who refused to 
acknowledge their abilities or else Squibs who had perhaps a few isolated incidences of magic in 
their lifetimes. While such Healings and Visions are recognised officially by the Catholic Church 
many Muggle Christians, still reject magic on the whole, condemning it as evil and dangerous. 
Wizard Christians have found it easiest to practise their beliefs outside of Muggle churches to 
avoid the condemnation and ostracism that they would be prone to experience in Muggle circles. 
One interesting sect of Christianity is known as Esoteric Christianity. This branch of 
Christianity does not reject all magic, and is made up of a mix of open-minded Muggles and 
practising witches and wizards. They use the Bible in their teachings, though focus primarily on 
the four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) and select readings from the remainder of 
the Bible, primarily from the New Testament. They believe Jesus Christ is indeed the Messiah 
as the rest of 

Christianity does, but they set themselves apart in that they believe themselves an enlightened 
few. This branch has ancient roots, tracing back to the fourth century C.E. as the disciplina arcani 
a secret oral tradition of Hellenistic and Palestinian Judaism. The sect adopted views of 
Christianity over time and became Esoteric Christianity. 

An important achievement of Esoteric Christianity that witches and wizards involved in the sect 
brought about was the introduction of the art of Alchemy. Famed alchemist Nicolas Flamel 
(1327-1992) himself was an Esoteric Christian and he remains the only known maker of the 
Philosopher’s Stone, a legendary substance that can turn any base metal into pure gold and 
produces the Elixir of Life, which makes the drinker immortal. The advent of Alchemy in this 
select group of Christians has been used by future generations of Magical peoples for Muggle- 
Magic relations as evidence that Muggles and Magical peoples can live fully integrated, but a 
counterargument of the Witch Burnings of the same time period as well as many wizards being 
unwilling for such cohesion has stopped true integration from reoccurring. 

Esoteric Christianity shows that some Muggles are open-minded enough to accept witches and 
wizards into their lives, though the Ministry of Magic disapproves of this lifestyle and sees the 
Esoteric Christians who are witches and wizards as rebels and, as per the Statute of Secrecy of 
1692, will arrest them if they are caught. For this reason, Esoteric Christians of both Muggle and 
Magical roots keep their religion a closely guarded secret to this day. Religion has greatly 
impacted the Magical world, and it remains one of the key elements that lead to the later 
separation of the magical societies from the nonmagical world. 

There is no rejection of magic or of Western witches and wizards amongst practitioners of 
Confucianism. They do not reject magic as much as disavow it. They would claim that what 
Western wizardkind identifies as “magic” is simply “Li,” or the ability to make something 
happen without taking direct physical action. How this differs from “magic” is not entirely clear, 
though, of course, physical action is required in many forms of magic, at least as Western 
wizardkind practices it most often. Thus, it is possible that the followers of Confucianism 
simply fail to utilize some forms of magic, while excelling in others. 

Confucian wizards and witches consider themselves to be allied with “The School of the 
Scholars.” Were they to attend Hogwarts, they would be overrepresented amongst the 
Ravenclaws, and secondarily amongst the Hufflepuffs. In their own wizarding academies, the 
tendency is so strongly to be sorted into the House of one’s parents that to be sorted otherwise 
makes one a bit of an oddity. 

Confucian wizarding practice is strongly ritualistic and formal, even in small bits of magic. As 
with Western magic, Li is used for even the smallest of household tasks, but is often cooperative 
in nature, invoking a relationship to accomplish even simple tasks such as summoning spells. 
Confucian approaches to magic are, in fact, so cooperative that the desires of the individual 
wizard are often sublimated to those of the group. 

Perhaps the best statement of this philosophical approach is a quote of one Confucian wizard, 
known by the single name “Spock,” who famously stated, “The needs of the many outweigh the 
needs of the one... or the few.” It is entirely possible that a misunderstanding of this ethical 
stance on the use of magic is responsible for the twisted perspective that Gellert Grindelwald 
developed; that wizardkind should assume power over Mugglekind “for the greater good.” A 
deeper understanding would have informed him that this stance is completely antithetical to the 
principles of Confucianism. 

The focus of Daoist beliefs is spontaneity, and connecting with nature. Thus, Daoist magic was 
completely unstructured, and revolved around nature spells. This nature magic varied from 
forming rivers through Gouging Spells and an early form of Aguamenti to affecting the weather 
in much more complex ways than the modern curses and Atmospheric Charms. One wizard, by 
the name of Huai Bai is known for his ability to summon or stop rain without speaking a word. 
He wrote: 

The rain inside me 
Commands me to let it out 
Falling upon us 

Many similar poems exist, and some modern historians believe that this poetry was actually a 
means of forming spells. However, they have not worked in various modern experimental 
settings, leading to the conclusion that they involved some other movement or substance, or that 
the magic behind them has ceased to exist. 

This interest in nature also leads to astounding strides in Herbology. Daoist wizards and 
Muggles discovered countless useful herbs and fungi, including Finger Root and Sea Buckthorn. 
They worked together to develop methods for herb maintenance and use, advancing the field of 
potion-making as well. However, due to the Daoists’ wishes for spontaneity, the procedures for 
most of the potions were never recorded, and cannot be replicated. 

Within the Daoist community, there was no distinction between Muggles and wizards. Most 
Muggles believed that they had the same powers as wizards to control their surroundings through 
magic. Through Daoism, wizards and Muggles collaborated freely, without conflict. 

Greek Rationalists promoted the radical, wholesale rejection of the history, philosophy and 
experience of wizardkind (and Mugglekind, to boot) as mere superstition. They considered 
magic and wizardry as having no intellectual foundation or basis in reality. That is, essentially, 
if they could not determine the laws of magic by the use of pure logic, without regard to the 
evidence of their senses, they dismissed the phenomenon as being, somehow, untrue. While they 
did not persecute wizardkind, they dismissed them as being irrational at best, and charlatans at 
worst. Unfortunately, this view of magic as “improvable by logic” eventually was twisted into a 
more threatening view, and contributed to the development of the widespread persecution of 
witches and wizards in the 1600s. 

Prior to the rise of the Rationalist movement, wizards and witches were able to mingle freely 
with the Muggle world, not necessarily flaunting their abilities or even practicing their craft 
openly, but certainly without fear of prosecution or even coming to the notice of their neighbors, 
given Muggle tendency to dismiss what they cannot explain. In 1584, however, rationalist 
Reginald Scot (a Muggle) wrote a frightening text (to the wizarding world): Discoverie of 
Witchcraft, an informally produced collection of magical spells and charms, wherein he 
recorded the level of development of magical practice in the 16th century, and then proceeded to 
claim it was superstition and outright deception. 

How it was that Scot acquired access to the range of witches and wizards he would have needed 
to produce this text is unclear. However, what is clear is that his text raised Muggle awareness 
of the existence of magic, its principles and practices, and its usefulness. This led to two 
problems: increasing demand for wizarding intervention in Muggle problems, and blame for 
even the smallest, most random of Muggle problems on supposed wizarding activity. Needless 
to say, this text became one of the motives for prosecution of witches and wizards throughout 
Europe and North America, leading directly to the need for the International Statute of Secrecy, 
passed in 1689. More recently, in the 1900s, Rationalism morphed into Pragmatism, and returned 
to acceptance of magic, due to Pragmatism’s focus on “if it works, and is useful, it must be 

rational and true.” 

Ironically, Greek Rationalism is also responsible for the development of statistics and the 
scientific method. Current practice of these, even amongst Muggles, has led to what they refer to 
as the study of “quantum mechanics” or “quantum effects,” a field of study which is on the 
verge of proving the existence of magic with sufficient “proof’ to satisfy the most rigorous of the 
Greek Rationalists. Further, the impact of statistical methods devised by the Rationalists on the 
subtle science of potion-making, with its emphasis on empirical methods, exact methodology, 
and replicability, is incalculable. 

Practitioners of Hinduism are quite conversant with the wizarding world, and there is much 
exchange of knowledge, opinions, and methods between the Western wizarding world and these 
mostly Eastern practitioners, particularly since the middle to late 1900s when the Wizard Wrock 
band The Beatles went public with their study of the methods of Hindu wizardry. 

Hindu wizards are referred to as “Mantriks” or “magicians.” They are known for their expertise 
in the use of spells, curses, and rhythmic, sing-song charms called “mantras.” Unique amongst 
the Hindu wizards is the crafting of beautiful spells in the form of tantras or mandalas, which are 
often geometric in form, and may be simple line drawings or much more colorful, and may be 
permanently inscribed using dragon’s blood and other rare inks, or temporarily created out of 
dyed sand. Knut to Sickle-sized mandalas may be worn around the neck or carried in the pocket. 
Others may adorn a room in the witch or wizard’s home. 

Practitioners of the methods of Hindu wizardry tend to excel in engorgio/reducio spells, 
Apparating, conjuring, and banishment. Many Mantrik practitioners excel in methods of 
Divination, even if they are not Seers, per se. It would be extremely unusual, even bizarre, to find 
a Mantrik practicing Dark magic; Hindu magic is almost entirely focused on positive energy. As 
a result, of course, their wands tend to be made of wand woods that have overwhelmingly 
positive energies, and their cores, in contrast to those of British wizards, tend to be of gemstone 
rather than including animal essences. 

Followers of Islam see the practice of magic as either destructive or deceptive. As a result, their 
most common reaction to witches and wizards is, first, a determined pretense that they do not 
exist, and second, and equally determined avoidance, both of true members of the wizarding 
community and Muggle practitioners of the slight-of-hand that Muggles, amusingly, refer to as 
“magic,” but which is actually entertainment for other unobservant Muggles. They are 
particularly wary of Divination in any of its forms, the Imperius curse (with good reason, as it is 
Unforgiveable even amongst wizardkind) and the practice of Occlumancy. It is a peculiarity of 
this group that they disavow even the practice of Healing, when practiced in anything other than 
the more barbaric Muggle manner. 

If a witch or wizard unwisely makes themselves known within the community of those who 
practice Islam, they are likely to find themselves in the midst of a fierce debate about the 
deceptiveness or destructiveness of their magic, with the unfortunate Muggles attempting to 
disprove the evidence before them. Alternatively, the Muggles may attempt to detain the witch or 
wizard for acts against God or nature, and issue appropriate punishments. They are often 
frustrated in this, of course, as the detained witch or wizard typically Disapparates away before 
they come to any harm. 

Judaism is one of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions. A monotheistic religion means one 
in which a solitary deity, or god, is worshipped. Most religions up until this point were 
polytheistic, or worshipped a myriad of different gods who were generally each worshipped for 
specific things, such as harvest, sunlight, and rain. Polytheistic religions were more common and 
more popular in ancient times because ancient peoples used the gods and goddesses to explain all 
things - good and bad - that happened in their lives, so it made sense to assign different areas of 
strength to different gods and goddesses as they applied to a specific culture’s everyday life. 
Judaism challenged this belief, believing a solitary god (“Yahweh”) was solely responsible for 
all areas of life, that the same god who created man also caused storms and punished 

Jewish religion forbade many Magical Arts in the religious texts, the Torah and the Talmud. 
Astrology, “black” (Dark) magic, “fortunetelling” (Divination), “magic medicine” (Healing), and 
superstition were all outlawed in Judaism. The schism between the magical and nonmagical 
communities had begun to form, as this was when the shift between revering and even 
borderline worshipping witches and wizards and fearing and despising them began to form. 
Punishment by death was common in this time for those accused of practising the Magical Arts. 
New spells, new potions, and new knowledge of the magical arts was stifled because suddenly, 
witches and wizards were condemned to practise behind closed doors and could no longer openly 
discuss experiments they were conducting. Fewer and fewer people felt safe to discuss their 
magic for fear that they would be overheard and they would be executed. More common than 
witch or wizard deaths were Muggle deaths of those Muggles who tried to copy their magical 
neighbours and were caught. Unfortunately, Muggles lacked the ability to protect themselves 
with the use of Illusory Charms and protective enchantments and sentences to death were 
carried out successfully. Despite all of this, witches and wizards continued to live immersed in 
Muggle culture for several more centuries and saw the beginnings of new religions come into 
play, religions that equally outlawed and feared their magical arts that was so crucial to the 
Wizarding culture. 

A Brief Overview 


peoples have feared witchcraft for centuries. In fact, the first time that 
witchcraft in any form for any purpose was officially denounced as a sin or 
crime in history was in the Hebrew Torah, circa 14th and 12th century 
B.C. Small portions of two 

books of the Torah (Exodus and Leviticus) were used by Muggle 
authorities to promote the idea that witchcraft is evil or dangerous as per the 
twisted idea of witchcraft that they presented within the context of their 
religion. While this told 

Muggles that magic was wrong, it was quite a while before open and frequent 
persecution was recorded in history. In fact, there were early church 
authorities, including by some accounts St. Augustine, who thought magic no 
more than delusion. This was, of course, of great relief to early witches 
and wizards of Europe, where Christianity (a religion based partially on the 
laws of the Torah) dominated the minds of men and witches and wizards commonly 
lived in communities in which their gifts were seen as sinful. The words 
of these religious leaders, however, did not always ease the minds of the 
average Muggles and, for the next several hundred years, witchcraft was 
acknowledged by Muggles as wrong, evil, dangerous, or frightening, at times 
believed to be possible and at others denounced as impossible. In the thirteenth century, 
witchcraft trials 

in Europe began to gain popularity and by the early fourteenth century burnings 

were common. 


people (more commonly known as Muggles) were particularly afraid of magic in 
medieval times, but not very good at recognising it. On the rare occasion that 
they did catch a real witch or wizard, burning had no effect whatsoever. The 
witch or wizard would perform a basic Flame Freezing Charm and then pretend to 
shriek in pain while enjoying a gentle, tickling sensation. Indeed, Wendelin 

the Weird enjoyed being burned so much that she allowed herself to be caught no 
less than forty-seven times in various disguises. 

Many witches, wizards and even Muggles lost their 

lives due to the Muggles’ fear of both the unknown and the so-called 

occult. During the Renaissance, there 

was a strong sense of religiousness. A chilling result of this orthodoxy was 
the prevalence of witch burnings, which took place in both Catholic and 
Protestant countries at the time. It started towards the end of the Middle Ages 
and peaked in the seventeenth century, though it lasted until the eighteenth 
century before it began to fade. Almost 

all Muggles of the time accepted witches and wizards as a reality. Muggles 
strictly defined the terms witch and wizard (mostly witch) to mean a person who 
had sold their soul to the devil. Their evil work was thought to influence 
aspects of daily life, such as a failed harvest, or if a person fell gravely 
ill or died suddenly without warning. 

According to Muggles of the day, a witch had the 

power to harm her fellow people or Muggles by giving up her soul’s salvation. 
Muggles had many outrageous ideas about witches, including that they held 
meetings on the witches’ Sabbath where they supposedly had sexual intercourse 
with the Devil, who could take the form of a goat or other animals. In Catholic 
countries, the Inquisition (run by the church courts) led the witch cases, 

while in Protestant countries it fell to the civil courts. The interrogation of 
suspected witches was almost always conducted under torture. It was often so 
painful that the accused would be more than willing to confess anything, just 
to escape the pain. The most common punishment was death, by burning at the 
stakes. Most convicted witches were older women, but some younger men and women 
were also charged and convicted. 

Witch burnings took place throughout Europe. In 

1591 in North Berwick in Scotland, 70 people were accused of witchcraft because 
of the poor weather on the seas, when King James VI of Scotland travelled to 
Denmark to meet his betrothed. He was 

extremely paranoid about witchcraft, and this incident came to be the largest 
witch-hunt in Britain. A man by the name 

Matthew Hopkins was a successful witch hunter in England during 1645-1646. He 

managed to charge more witches in his career than had been charged combined in 
the past 100 years. In England, over 500 witch burnings took place, 200 of 
which Hopkins was directly responsible for. 

There were trials and witch burnings held in the American Colonies as 
well. The Salem Witch Trials, held in Massachusetts Colony in 1692-1693, is 
particularly well known. More than 150 people were charged with witchcraft, 
although only 19 people were put on trial and found guilty. Most were hanged 
for their misdeeds. In 1682, the last accused witch in England was executed. 
Temperance Lloyd, a Muggle woman who had gone senile with age, was executed 
England for witchcraft. We can conclude that people have always been afraid of 
what they do not know, beasts and humans both. 

These stories about witchcraft have flourished for hundreds of years, 

and the fear of it has made people do horrible things. It is unknown how many 

lost their lives to the flames, but it is estimated that between the height of 

the witch hunt from 1500-1660, 50,000-80,000 people were killed (most of them 


Wizarding Villages Shaped by Witch-Hunts 


these witch-hunts became more popular in the 1500s, many witches and wizards 
began secluding themselves in small communities inside larger cities and towns. 
They did so because their children were particularly prone to having accidental 

magic outbursts before being properly trained, and there was a very real danger 
of these small children being accused of witchcraft. Magic folk clung to each 
other for social support in these troubled times, sharing life updates with 
those that it was safe to talk to, and scarcely socialising much with the 
Muggles in the wider community. 


1689, these communities were unofficial and were created by witches and wizards 
who gravitated together for the social and moral support that came with being 
surrounded by similar people. However, in 1689, the International Statute of 
Secrecy was signed, and it went into effect three years later, in 1692. While 
witch-hunts in England had stopped by 1682, witch-hunts in the wider European 
continent and even in the British Colonies in the North American continent had 

not yet ceased. In 1692, in fact, there was a huge outbreak of witch-hunt 
hysteria in the North American city of Salem, Massachusetts. 


International Statute of Secrecy aimed to protect witches and wizards globally 
from the fear and persecution that they faced at the hands of their Muggle 
counterparts. It urged witches and wizards to seclude themselves and live 
separately to protect themselves and their children from the misguided ideology 
that spurred witch-hunt hysteria. Signed by the International Confederation of 
Wizards, the International Statute of Secrecy was widely believed to be the 
best possible way to protect both Muggles and witches and wizards from future 
persecution. It was this document that led the existing wizarding communities 
to be officially recognised as such, though some had existed for over one 
hundred years before the Statute was written. 

The Emergence of Wizarding Villages 


the beginning of time, witches and wizards have lived within Muggle communities 
and, often, while using their magical abilities to their fullest extent. While 
cohesion in European communities was never as complete as it was in most 
ancient communities, there was some acceptance and tolerance in European communities, 
though some communities were markedly better at accommodating both magic and 
non-magic peoples than others. To understand wizarding villages, one must first 
understand how witches and wizards came to desire to be separate, and that all 
begins with Muggle witch-hunts. 



the most famous wizarding village in Britain is Hogsmeade Village, which lies 
just outside of Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry’s boundaries. This 
village is the only all-magical community in Britain, as opposed to the 
abundant ‘communities within communities’ that are most wizarding villages. 
This is also one of the oldest wizarding communities, having been founded 
between 1010 and 1030. The date remains uncertain because of poorly kept 
records of the time, but Hengist of Woodcraft is credited with the founding of 
the village after he was run out of his own town by Muggle witch-hunters. Some 
lore indicates that Hengist of Woodcraft lived in the Three Broomsticks 
building, but there has never been any document to verify this. 


Village has a long, rich history, partly because of its close connection to 
Hogwarts School. It has housed numerous notable witches and wizards over the 
centuries and has seen the growth of Hogwarts School from a very personal 
perspective as third years and up have been allowed to visit Hogsmeade since 
the year 1500 (though this right was briefly suspended during 1612 and again 
during 1997 and 1998). Its most notable contribution to history, however, is 
that Hogsmeade Village was the location of the goblin rebellion of 1612. The 
Three Broomsticks Inn was used as the wizards’ headquarters during the bloody 

and deadly rebellion, and this rebellion was the first of many in wizarding 
history. After the International Statute of Secrecy was signed in 1689, 
Hogsmeade saw an influx of residents, as did every other wizarding village in 
Britain at this time. 

Godric’s Hollow 


Hollow was an unofficial wizarding ‘community within a community’ in the West 
Country of England for centuries before the International Statute of Secrecy. 

It was the home to many influential families including, unsurprisingly, Godric 
Gryffindor. Other notable names include the Dumbledores, the Peverells, Bowman 
Wright, the inventor of the Golden Snitch, and the Potters. Prior to the 
International Statute of Secrecy, Godric’s Hollow was an unnamed wizarding 
community. It had grown into a small collective group of witches and wizards 
who leaned on each other for social support, but they had never named the 
community. When the International Statute of Secrecy made such communities 
official, they chose to name it in honour of Godric Gryffindor, the most well 
known one-time resident of the area. 


the many well-known happenings in Godric’s Hollow, the most well known is, of 
course, the first downfall of Lord Voldemort, when he murdered Lily and James 
Potter and tried to kill Harry Potter in 1981. However, this was by far not the 
first important historical event to have happened in Godric’s Hollow. A second 
important event was the first duel between Albus Dumbledore and Gellert 
Grindelwald, which also involved Albus’s brother, Aberforth. This three-way 
duel is less publicised than Albus Dumbledore’s later defeat of Grindelwald, 
but it was noteworthy nonetheless as it marked the end of a close friendship 
between Dumbledore and Grindelwald. It took place in 1899. While these events 
are fairly recent, it must not be forgotten that the true legacy of Godric’s 
Hollow is that of one of the Hogwarts founders, Godric Gryffindor, lived in 
Godric’s Hollow long before it attained that name. 


A lesser-known wizarding community than 

Godric’s Hollow, Mould-on-the-Wold was another important magical community 
England. Best known as the early childhood home of Albus Dumbledore, it was 
first founded in the early 1700s. What makes Mould-on-the-Wold notable is its 
relatively late formation as a wizarding village. It is believed by many that 
the Dumbledore family was instrumental in its founding, though this is 
difficult to prove as much of Percival Dumbledore’s reputation was ruined when 
he was jailed in Azkaban for crimes against Muggle children. Mould-on-the-Wold 
provided the same solace that Godric’s Hollow and Hogsmeade Village provided 
witches and wizards, giving them both company and support during times rife 
with conflict between non-magic and magic peoples. 

Ottery St. Catchpole 

Several wizarding families who were 

seeking solace and comfort in each other’s company first established Ottery St. 
Catchpole in 1693 in Devon, England. This happened shortly after the 
enforcement of the International Statute of Secrecy, and the families involved 
chose to settle in the countryside within Devon because it was out of the way 

and the Muggles of Devon had historically burned fewer witches than those in other 
parts of Britain. Notable residents include the Weasleys and the Fawcetts, as 
well as the Lovegoods (of whom the best known member is Xenophilius Lovegood, 
renowned for the publication of the news source The Quibbler). There have been no 
scandals or security 

breaches in Ottery St. Catchpole, and it remains one of the most highly 
populated wizarding communities in Great Britain, with several eccentric 
houses. Muggles have long since accepted that the architecture is a bit ‘odd’ 
in Ottery St. Catchpole, but it has become a running joke and is rarely 



coastal community in Cornwall, England, Tinworth was founded around the same 
time as Ottery St. Catchpole and for the same reason. The International Statute 
of Secrecy was a leading factor in the creation of this community within 
Cornwall, where prior to the Statue’s introduction, many witches and wizards 
were quite happy living with the tolerant and sometimes Confunded Muggles who 
also resided in Cornwall. Tinworth witches and wizards enjoy the coastal 
atmosphere, and it is a popular vacation destination for young, particularly 
English witches and wizards and those witches and wizards with young children. 


a popular vacation spot for many magical families who have children not yet 
trained to control their magic, many odd things have been reported in Muggle 
news sources in the Cornwall area. However, most of the time, such occurrences 
are played down by Muggles as tricks of the light in the bright ocean air or 
credited to overindulgence of alcohol by the Muggles. Rarely do memories need 
modifying because non-magic peoples are so very desperate to pretend that magic 
does not exist, even if it is in plain view. There are few court cases against 
the parents of young witches and wizards because of their children’s inability 
to control their magic because of Muggles’ propensity to explain away perfectly 
logical magical events, but such cases do happen occasionally. 

Upper Flagley 


small wizarding community in Yorkshire, England, Upper Flagley was formed in 
the late 1600s after the passage of the International Statute of Secrecy, 
though it had existed unofficially, much like Godric’s Hollow, for centuries 
before. A large number of wizarding families have settled there for the sense of 
community and fellowship that they gain from close quarters. While little of 
historical note has happened in Upper Flagley, it is worth mentioning as being 
one of the longest lasting and prominent wizarding communities for the past 
millennium, only eclipsed by Godric’s Hollow and Hogsmeade Village. 



communities have long been part of greater Muggle communities throughout Europe 
and Great Britain. In 1692, they were officially recognised by the wizarding 
governing bodies in each country that had sent a delegate to the International 
Confederation of Wizards, and the unofficial wizarding communities began naming 
themselves to distinguish themselves from other villages and also so that other 
witches and wizards would know where to go if they were hoping to settle down 
in a wizarding community. Throughout the 1700s and 1800s, wizarding communities 
gained great popularity, and there are many more than are mentioned in this 
section, but these are the most well-known and spoken of in England. Even 
today, in the twenty-first century, wizarding villages are the first choice for 
many families, particularly families with children, who hope that their 
children will have good friends nearby growing up before going to Hogwarts and 
on their breaks from school. The International Statute of Secrecy may have made 
the villages official, but wizarding communities, around since the beginning of 
European settlements, will likely continue indefinitely. 

Muggle Version 

To Muggles, the stories of King Arthur (including 

Merlin) are thought to be a myth. Muggles believe that Merlin was only granted 
the gift of magic because his mother was raped by a demon while still a virgin. 
The Muggles’ legend continues that Merlin found himself to be King Uther 
Pendragon’s personal sorcerer. Uther desired Igraine, the wife of his enemy, 
with whom he was attempting to create peace. Uther desired the woman so much, 
that he persuaded Merlin to enchant him so that he sounded and looked like her 
husband King Gorlois, in order to have one night with her. This happened to be 
the night Arthur was conceived. After he was born, Merlin rushed Arthur away to 
a village where he secretly entrusted the child to another family. Arthur grew 
up without knowledge of his heritage, until Uther was killed by his daughter 
Morgan Le Fey. She grew bitter and evil towards her father, because now that 
her mother and Gorlois were both dead, Uther was able to marry Igraine and take 
Gorlois’ land for his own. Morgana, as she was sometimes known, desired the 
kingdom and power for herself. Unfortunately she knew nothing about Uther’s 
illegitimate son. After Uther was killed, Merlin rushed to the village where he 
had placed Arthur in the care of Sir Ector. Arthur, now a grown man, followed 
Merlin back to take his rightful place as king and to rid his evil half-sister 
of power. This proved to be harder than anticipated because Morgan Le Fey had 

Merlin eventually became Arthur’s greatest advisor 

and helped him become king. The kingdom, though, was torn between loyalty to 

Morgana and loyatly to Arthur. Merlin, many years previously, enchanted a 
sword, Excalibur, to be stuck in a stone until the rightful owner tried to take 
it for his own. People did not know it was Merlin’s doing, but instead that the 
sword was placed in the stone by the Gods. Arthur manages to pull Excalibur 
from the stone. People all around the different kingdoms hear about this and 
they flock to him for leadership. Arthur is quickly thereafter crowned as king 
of all of England, with his throne in the castle of Camelot. 

Later, barons and knights suggested it was time 

for Arthur to get a wife and Arthur chooses a woman by the name of Guinevere. 
However, Merlin foresees that Guinevere will betray Arthur, because one of 

Arthur’s own knight’s, Sir Lancelot, will fall in love with her. But Arthur 
would not listen and soon the two of them were married. Merlin’s prediction 
would become a reality later on. 

One day, King Pellinor, brings a lady to King Arthur’s 

court. A lady, by the name of Nimue. She is today known as the Damsel of the 
Lake. Merlin falls in love with Nimue, and he doesn’t leave her side at any 
time possible. Nimue is interested in Merlin’s magical gift and Merlin teaches 
her all the magic he knows. Nimue later accommodates him to the land of Benwick 
were Merlin saw Lancelot, and predicted, that he would one day be known as the 
most honourable and noble knights in all of England. On their travels, Nimue 
realises the affections Merlin has for her and she sees the potential in this. 

They came to a cave were she saw her great chance to be rid of Merlin. She uses 
his own magic against him, and trapped him inside the cave, never to see the 
brightness of the sun ever again. 

However, we as witches and wizards, knows the true 
story of mighty Merlin: 

Wizard Version 

It is true that Merlin had magic, but the Muggles 

just didn’t know to what extent. Merlin was accepted to Hogwarts School of 
Witchcraft and Wizardry when he was young, just like many other witches and 
wizards. Muggles in the Middle Ages believed magic was something that one was 
taught, and surely enough one could be taught certain types like potions. 

However, there also exists a certain kind of magic that comes from within, some 
kind of magic that cannot be taught. Merlin was one of a kind. 

He was sorted into Slytherin, and it soon became 
apparent that Merlin was meant for something great. 

Merlin’s mother was no virgin, nor was she raped 

by a demon. His mother was actually a witch, who fell in love with a Muggle. In 
order not to implicate her love or herself, she lied about Merlin’s origins. 

Merlin did extraordinary things at Hogwarts, and 

he would soon be acknowledged as the greatest and most talented wizard Hogwarts 
had ever seen. Not much is known about Merlin’s school years, but there are a 
few things we do know. 

Merlin’s wand is said to have been made of oak, 

although this cannot be proven because neither his wand nor his grave has ever 
been found. 

Supposedly, Merlin became the trusted 

advisor/sorcerer to Uther Pendragon because a dragon had revealed parts of the 
future to Merlin. Uther had captured this dragon as a young man, and kept it 
prisoner deep in the underground of his castle. 

Only dragonlords can speak with and understand dragons, 
and Merlin was fortunate to have this special gift. The dragon told him that 
one day Uther Pendragon would become the father of a boy who would be named 
Arthur, and together Arthur and he would build a world called Albion, where 
magic would once again flourish throughout the land. Uther had previously 
forbidden magic in his kingdom because he was afraid that if magic was 
permitted, he would lose his power to a warlock or witch. Only Merlin was 
permitted to use his magic, in order to help Uther in every way possible. 

Merlin indeed helped Uther to change his 

appearance so he could steal a night with the married Igraine. This is the 
first known usage of what later came to be called the Polyjuice Potion. 

Arthur was bom and hidden by Merlin in a nearby 

town so that he would later become the king that the dragon had prophesized. 

As told in the Muggle myths of Merlin and Arthur, 

Uther was killed by his daughter Morgan Le Fey (sometimes known as Morgana), 
mainly because she wanted the kingdom and power for herself. (Morgana also 
attended Hogwarts as a child, but it is unknown to what house she belonged.) 
Merlin brought Arthur back to claim his rightful place on the throne, but in 
the process gained an enemy in Morgana forever. 

Merlin did indeed place the sword Excalibur in the 

stone for the rightful king of England to claim, and when Arthur pulled the 
sword from the stone, he won the trust of the citizens of England. They 
answered to his leadership rather than Morgana’s. 

When Uther died. Merlin released the dragon from 

its prison, but kept a close friendship with the creature. Merlin was no seer, 
like the Muggles believed him to be. It was the dragon who told Merlin about 
Guinevere’s eventual fleshly betrayal of Arthur with Sir Lancelot. However, as 
in the Muggle legend, Arthur would not listen to Merlin and decided to marry 
Guinevere after all. It was true that both Sir Lancelot and Guinevere betrayed 
King Arthur. However, this was primarily due to a spell that Morgana cast on 
Guinevere. She was drawn to Sir Lancelot and ended up kissing him. King Arthur 
found out and almost had burned Guinevere at the stake and Sir Lancelot exiled, 
but Merlin discovered the truth and explained everything to Arthur. Merlin was 
able to undo the spell and everything remained in peace at Camelot. Arthur’s 
and Guinevere’s relationship was never the same though. After the episode, Sir 
Lancelot did everything he could to restore his honour and was later known as 
the greatest and noblest knight of Arthur’s court. 

It is also true that King Pellinor once brought a 

young woman to court named Nimue, known as the Damsel of the Lake. Merlin was 
an old man by then, but he was besotted with her. She was also born with the 
gift of magic, but had never attended Hogwarts. It is not known why. She sought 
to learn magic from Merlin, and he taught her everything she knew. They even 
travelled to find a wand for her. When they finally found the right quality for 
her wand, Nimue believed that she did not need Merlin any more. She realised 
that she could be even greater than him and did not want him around. Nimue 
tricked Merlin into a cave, broke his wand in half, used his own magic against 
him and forced him to die a merciless death in the cave. 

Nimue later bragged of her accomplishment against the greatest wizard in 
history, but she never did reveal the location of the cave. 

There are stories that claim that Merlin escaped 

the cave and returned to Arthur’s court, albeit wandless and unable to perform 
magic anymore. However, these are believed to be just rumour. 

Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry is both the 

oldest and most accomplished wizarding school ever established. Built around 

990 A.D., it set a precedent that then the rest of the world would soon follow. 

Other prominent European schools such as Beauxbaton’s Academy of Magic and 

Durmstrang Institute were not established until after Hogwarts’ initial 




Along with Hogwarts’ three other founders, Godric 

Gryffindor is considered to be one of the most talented wizards of all time, 

known especially for his duelling prowess. Of all the founders, Godric was closest to Salazar 

Slytherin. However, by 

the time that Salazar had fully formulated his intention to ban Muggle-bom 
wizards to Hogwarts, their friendship had been severed. Born in a moor village 
(now known as Godric’s Hollow) to Muggle parents, Godric’s sensitivity towards 
Muggle-boms were certainly understandable, and, even though he had never told 
Salazar of his heritage, their break over this issue was inevitable. 

Godric was known for his 

admirable bravery and loyalty. Those who duelled him found him to be a 
fearless, if slightly reckless, opponent. In early years, he often duelled to 
defend Salazar when he found a witch or wizard foolish enough to slander his 
friend. When Godric with the remaining two founders ejected Salazar from any 
further association with Hogwarts, Godric was devastated. During the rest of 
his years serving at Hogwarts, he held particular favour for students who would 

stand up to their friends, combining his two favourite qualities of bravery and 
loyalty with a bit of his own personal experience. 




was bom in Scotland in 976 A.D. From her youth, she possessed an innate 
proclivity for knowledge. She was skilled in all areas of scholastic magic and 
dabbled in other areas such as magical architecture. As a young witch, Rowena 
studied wandlore extensively before designing and creating her own wand. 


her youth and early adulthood, Rowena dedicated herself to learning as much 
about everything as she could. Her home, the ruins of which are now a popular 
Scottish tour site, was covered wall to ceiling in books spanning every subject 
imaginable. Those who came into contact with her, Muggle, witch, and wizard 
alike, often shied away from both her undeniable beauty and daunting 
vocabulary. As such, Rowena formed very few relationships in her lifetime. At 
age twenty, nevertheless, Rowena met Jares Ravenclaw, a magical philosopher ten 
years her senior. While Rowena did her best to discourage him, love-struck 

Jares was persistent and eventually won her over. 


Hufflepuff, Jares’ cousin, met Rowena shortly thereafter, and the two formed a 
close friendship that led to Rowena’s introduction into the project that became 
Hogwarts. As a founder, Rowena threw her entire self into the school, designing 
several key portions of the castle, most notably the innovative enchanted 
staircases that contain magic that still baffles witches and wizards today. The 
witch also taught the most varied subjects of the founders to her young 
students, encompassing everything from Transfiguration to Herbology (although 
she steadfastly refused to teach Divination). 


was widowed when a wizard’s misfired spell killed her husband. Rowena then 
moved into the castle with her young daughter Helena and threw herself even 
further into her work. As Helena grew older, she resented her mother and 
eventually fled the castle, taking with her the fabled diadem of wisdom. 

Although Godric and Helga both knew the truth, Rowena denied that her daughter 
had run away. Often, Rowena left the castle to search for her daughter, always 
under the guise of doing something else. Her friends and co-founders allowed 
Rowena her pride and soon hired another two full-time professors to cover 
Rowena’s frequent absences. 


years of searching to no avail, Rowena’s health declined rapidly until she was 
bedridden. Desperate, Rowena instructed Baron Rasmus, a man who had long loved 
her daughter, to find Helena. The Baron soon located his love, who in turn 
rejected him. In anger, he killed her and, full of remorse, then killed 
himself. Almost luckily, Rowena died of her illness and a broken heart before 
she could hear the news. 

Upon her death, Rowena’s 

extensive library was donated to Hogwarts and even still comprises over half of 
the school’s total book count. 




Hufflepuff, while also one of the most talented witches of her time, used her 
magic in mostly maternal ways. Considered by many to have cared more about the 
mental well-being of her students than any of the other founders, Helga was 

known to take many students under her wing every year. Because of this, Helga 
was very seldom alone. 


in Wales to low-class, magical parents, her parents were unable to have any 
children after Helga was born, but they adopted a Muggle boy and girl as well 
as a young wizard. This diversity and wide collection of different ideas helped 
build Helga into the legendarily tolerant witch that she became. 


was the only one of the founders who was significantly immersed in Muggle 
culture, as Godric’s magical abilities were discovered early on, and he then 
spent most of his time learning from the wizard who ‘discovered’ him. Helga 
attended school for young Muggles with her adopted siblings until the age of 
thirteen. She and her wizard brother often received extremely low marks in 
school because they spent most of their time outside of school practicing 
magic. As Helga’s magical talents became more apparent, her parents scrimped 
and saved to pay for her to study with some of the most clever witches and 
wizards of the time. She worked her hardest to learn everything that they knew 
and eventually surpassed them all. 


met Godric and Salazar when they were travelling together in search of 
adventure. Being several years older than the wizards, she provided a maternal, 
caring figure that both the young men craved. She kept in close contact with 
the two wizards as they grew older, and through her experiences watching them 
grow had the idea to create a wizarding school. With her discovery of Godric 
and Salazar and inclusion of Rowena, her project had all the components it 
needed to begin. 




Slytherin had many unusual magical talents. As a young boy, his friendship with 
Godric began when Salazar challenged Godric to a duel, then used Legilimency to 
anticipate the other boy’s move and quickly disarm him. Too impressed to be 
offended, Godric offered friendship on the condition that Salazar never read 
his mind again. To even Salazar’s own surprise, it was a promise that he kept 
for the entire time that they were on good terms. 


up, Salazar’s wealthy parents kept him segregated from Muggles, never quite 
explaining to Salazar why they did so. One day, a Muggle boy was bullying a 
Muggle girl whom Salazar found quite beautiful. Seeing a serpent nearby, 
Salazar used Parseltongue to set the snake on the boy. The frightened girl ran 
back to her village to fetch adults, who returned to find the boy dead from the 
snake’s venom. The girl implicated Salazar, and the boy’s father went in search 
of the young wizard. When found, Salazar was nearly murdered in a brutal 
beating administered by the boy’s father, but Salazar’s own parents discovered 
the scene and killed the man. 


experience planted seeds of distrust and hatred in Salazar that later defined him. 
When he told Helga, Godric, and Rowena of his plan to bar Muggle-horns from 
Hogwarts, he was genuinely surprised at Godric’s and Rowena’s adamant refusals. 
Salazar had expected Helga to strongly disapprove, but hoped that with the 
support of the others he could convince her otherwise. 


Salazar had kept his promise to stay out of Godric’s mind, he had no idea that 
his friend was Muggle-bom. As for Rowena, she had never considered the idea 
that Muggle-borns were any different than pure-bloods, and when asked to 
consider the concept, she was able to quickly decide that she liked them both 


of bitterness and still hoping to ‘cleanse’ the school, Salazar created the 
Chamber of Secrets and placed a basilisk within that mirrored the hate in his 
heart. Godric, sensing that Salazar was practicing a very Dark magic, attempted 
to use Legilimency against him. Betrayed, Salazar pushed Godric out of 
his mind and with that contact finally discovered Godric’s heritage. That push, 
along with the continued and ever-growing hostility of the other founders, 
convinced Salazar to leave Hogwarts, but not before preparing the Chamber. 

Hogwarts has not always been the seven-story 

castle it is today. While proper documentation has never been found, popular 
theory claims that the founders originally built a structure that resembled a 
mansion, or a schoolhouse. However, the founders optimistically believed that 
Hogwarts would grow to the point where students would no longer fit within its 
walls. With this in mind, they enchanted the building to grow along with the 
number of students. While Godric Gryffindor, Salazar Slytherin, and Helga Hufflepuff 
did most of the collaborative spellwork, Rowena Ravenclaw designed and then 
inserted most of the architecture of the castle into the original building on a 
theoretical basis. Small features of the original structure were later 
magnified into more magnificent structures as Hogwarts grew into a castle. In 
order to keep students constantly on their toes, Rowena enchanted the different 
rooms on each floor to occasionally change position. This ability was gradually 
adopted by other parts of the castle, manifesting itself in features such as 
the changing staircases. 

Over the course of his time at Hogwarts, Salazar 

filled nearly every wall space with moving portraits and photographs. While 
some historians (who believe Salazar’s eventual dismissal from the castle 
stemmed from a gradual mental breakdown) insist it was because of a growing 
paranoia, most believe that he was at full mental capacity at his departure, 
and used the portraits to spy on his fellow founders in order to leam titbits 
of information he could later use against them. 

The portraits are not strictly a part of shady 

business, however, as their allegiances change often. Many a witch and wizard 
who spend genuine time with a portrait or two have received timely token 



At the time of Hogwarts’ creation, only a few 

rooms were reserved for each founder’s students, but like many other features, 
each set of rooms eventually expanded and gathered into separate wings 
displaying trademark characteristics of each of their patrons. 


The location of Hogwarts is somewhat vague, though 
it is known to be in the Scottish Highlands, near the all-wizard village of 
Hogsmeade. Hogwarts provides many learning opportunities for its students. 
Behind the castle lies the Black Lake, approximately a half mile in diameter. 
The lake houses several other species, including grindylows, an enormous giant 
squid, and a colony of mer-people. 

The Black Lake has commonly been given a negative 

reputation. This belief may stem from the fact that Slytherin house has been 

tied to its depths in more than one way. Not only is the Slytherin common room 
located beneath the lake itself, but prevailing rumours insist that Salazar’s 
Chamber of Secrets was also created somewhere nearby. 

To the right of the main castle is a dense forest, 

known by students as “The Forbidden Forest.” With few exceptions are students 
allowed to enter, although the forest offers supplies and educational tools for 
many classes such as Care of Magical Creatures and Herbology. The forest has 
not been explored thoroughly by any witch or wizard, but many creatures have 
been found within, from centaurs to unicorns to thestrals. A small hut lies on 
the outskirts of the forest that serves as either a supply building or the 
Gamekeeper’s house, depending largely on the amount of fear each Hogwarts 

Gamekeeper has held for The Forbidden Forest. The current Hogwarts Gamekeeper, 
Rubeus Hagrid, has dedicated a large amount of time to unearthing the mysteries 
of the Forbidden Forest. Through his research, Hagrid has discovered many 
surprising facts about various Magical Beasts, including the Acromantula. 

Hogwarts’ Quidditch pitch lies to the left of the 
castle, and is very large for the time in which it was built. By today’s 
standards, the Hogwarts pitch houses minimal seating, even though portions of 
it have been rebuilt numerous times. Unruly bludgers and other forms of 
destruction constantly require rebuilding of the outer walls and stands, but 
Hogwarts staff remains determined that the structure should remain the same. 

The remainder of the grounds are largely empty, with the exception of the 
Whomping Willow. Recently grown and from unknown origins, the tree has become 
sort of school symbol. While few (if any) would claim any affection for the 
tree, its quirkiness seamlessly adds to the many mysteries of Hogwarts. 

Britain has given birth to a myriad of wizards and 

witches, all having contributed to the progress of the wizard community in some 
way. Each wizard and witch that turns 17 comes of age and lays the foundation 
for a progressive wizard community. They will become the future wand makers, 
potion masters, seers, aurors and the like, and each bears a responsibility to 
pass on something new to include in the knowledge tree of the different 
branches of magic. 

Throughout the course of history, there have been 

a few individuals who have particularly stepped up and were recognized for 
their contribution to wizard kind. They have created something that will 
benefit future generations of wizards, or have sparked controversy that led to 
a possible shift in the decision-making process. These wizards are to be 
honored for they spent their lives shaping and re-forming wizarding society 
into what we see today. 

There are a total of 593 brilliant British wizards 

honoured in the British Hall of Fame located in the Museum of Magic, Oxford. 
They have made a significant contribution in a variety of ways, ranging from 
the invention of the self-stirring cauldron, to the revision of Magical Rights 
and Privileges. Noted wizards who are considered experts in their line of work 
are honoured with the Order of Merlin. A dinner banquet is held at the end of 
each year to recognize new and rising personalities, and to unveil their 
painting in the British Hall of Fame. Paintings of their likeness are also 

often hung in institutions where they once held office. 

Muggle Relations: Sir Nicholas Weasley 

Sir Weasley is an avid Muggle supporter and 

confidante to the reigning Muggle monarch. He was born in Linconshire in 1901. 
He was bom a pureblood and was part of the only wizarding family in a Muggle 
community. At the time, pureblood fanaticism was just a rumour, and his parents 

allowed him to mingle with the Muggle children before he began studying at 
Hogwarts. His friendship with Muggles lasted even as he spent his seven years 
at Hogwarts. Every summer, he would return and immerse himself in the Muggle 
way of life. He took up classes in Circuitry, the use of wires to transfer 
‘electricity’, and Car Repair, to learn how to mend a certain form of Muggle 
contraption used for travelling. He also studied Muggle Law and took up courses 
at Oxford University where he received a degree in Legal Management. At the 
time, Muggle relations were kept to a minimum, owing to the fact that Muggles 
considered wizards to be dodgy characters. Upon his graduation, Sir Weasley 
served as an advocate for Muggle relations as well as Muggle-born wizard 
equality; wizards from Muggle families were considered a lower class to the 
purebloods. Rallies and picket lines swept the country and he was often charged 
and imprisoned for his cause. In 1954, a bill was passed that allowed all 
Muggle-bom wizards to be granted the same rights as pureblood wizards. An 
office was set up in the Ministry of Magic to cater to all forms of 
Muggle-related activities including: Muggle relations to the Prime Minister, 
Misuse of Muggle Artefacts, Muggle-worthy Excuse Committee and the like. 

Sir Weasley is also a very famous horticulturist 

in the Muggle world. His contributions are often found unbelievable by many, 
but his extensive knowledge in plant care has earned him the right to visit the 
Royal gardens as he wishes. He was knighted in 1960 following his brave act of 
rescuing Queen Elizabeth II from a very nasty encounter with the Devil’s Snare 
plant. He was also awarded the Order of Merlin First Class. 

He currently consults for the Ministry of Magic 

Muggle Relations division. He is the Director of the Wizard Herbologist Society 
and a speaker at many Muggle conventions. He still resides in Linconshire 
within an unplottable area surrounded by a forest of Bubotubers. 

Beasts and Beings: Newton Artemis Fido Scamander 

‘Newt’ Scamander is a very influential wizard in 

the field of beast research. A graduate of Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and 

Wizardry, Mr. Scamander was already showing promise in the subject Care For 

Magical Creatures at a young age. He excelled greatly in his N.E.W.T. exams 

(perhaps because it shares the same letters as his nickname) which gave him the 

opportunity to work for the Department for the Control and Regulation of 

Magical Creatures. During his stay in the Ministry, he created the Werewolf 

Register Act in 1947, and the Ban on Experimental Breeding Act in 1965. He used his contacts 

and experience during 

his stay in the department as his references for the creation of his famous 
book Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find It, currently in its fifty-second 
edition. Mr. Scamander also takes frequent trips abroad to hone his knowledge 
of magical beasts. He was awarded the Order of Merlin, Second Class in 1979. 

Arts and Letters: Leonard Mauricio Ogden 

A brilliant artist skilled in the use of the Tripophone, 

Mr. Ogden ensured that the magic of music never left the hearts of wizards. As 
lead Tripophone player of the hot band sensation Three’s a Crowded Inn, Mr. 
Ogden and his band members created music that spoke of life experiences. His 
influence began during the mid-1920s at the same time that wizards began 
obsessing over the power that wands were able to produce. Three’s a Crowded Inn 
produced songs that spoke of socio-political issues such as ‘Let the Mudblood 
Do His Stuff, which gave very explicit details regarding the social statuses 
of Muggle-born wizards. Their songs often sparked controversy, especially from 

parents of impressionable children who considered their music ‘a doppelganger 
of the dark arts’. The band was forced into hiding when a group of wizards 
declared that they would hex them during their next public appearance. 

Mr. Ogden can currently be found discussing social 

issues and writing songs independently. His wireless show “The Word of the Owl” 
is a highly acclaimed segment on independent news correspondence. Mr. Ogden has 
no home because even now the parents who objected to his music- who probably 
have grandchildren by now- still hold a vendetta against him. You can catch him 
on the wireless whenever a controversy sparks. His most recent episode was 
about the sacking of Cornelius Fudge, which he favoured greatly. 

Defence Against the Dark Arts: Augusta Peverell 

She is the tenth generation of a great wizarding 

family: the Peverells. She is a direct descendant of Ignotus Peverell, one of 
the first occupants of the wizard community of Godric’s Hollow. 

This surname is often associated with the classic 

‘The Tale of the Three Brothers’ by Beedle the Bard. Ignotus is thought to be 

the brother who asks for a Cloak of Invisibility from Death. Augusta Peverell, 

along with her strong line of ancestors has been fighting the Dark Arts from the 

very beginning. Little is known about the Peverell family, except that their 

lineage has produced many great wizards who fought against the Dark Arts. Paradoxically, 

Lord Voldemort’s lineage may also be traced back to the Peverells. Augusta is 

famous for ridding the Forest of Dean of a large group of Dementors. Her 

actions, however dangerous at a time when the Patronus spell has yet to be 

invented, are honoured by the wizards in the area who suffered from long-term 

depression. A statue in her likeness was built deep in the forest and has 

become a travel destination for tourists. 

If you trace Augusta’s ancestry, you will see that 

her descendants include James Potter, member of the Order of the Phoenix, and 
his son Harry Potter, the Boy who Lived. 

Education: Albus Percival Wulfric Brian Dumbledore 

Also known as Professor Dumbledore, a man 

well-loved by students, staff members and political figures alike throughout 
Britain. The eldest son of Percival and Kendra Dumbledore, his life would shine 

with all the fame and success any wizard can dream of before being tarnished by 
an ugly past. 

Dumbledore was born in Mould-on-the-Wold in 1881 

but later moved to Godric’s Hollow after a tragic accident involving his 

younger sister Ariana and the imprisonment of his father. A gifted Gryffindor, 

he was rewarded for his wit and dedication by winning the Bamabus Finkely 

Prize for Exceptional Spell-Casting in his 7th year. He also became the British 

Youth Representative to the Wizengamot, and received the gold medal for Ground-Breaking 

Contribution to the International Alchemical Conference in Cairo. 

Dumbledore’s secret anti-Muggle sentiments were 

unleashed after meeting the wizard Grindelwald. However, due to a disagreement 
with Gridelwald which lead to a duel that killed his beloved sister Ariana, his 
sentiments changed and he stopped speaking to Grindelwald. He would not see him again until 
their later 

duel in 1945 at Grindelwald’s height of power. 

Dumbledore came out victorious, earning more admirers and opportunities 
for power. 

He was asked to succeed as Minister of Magic 

several times during his lifetime but declined them all. He was a modest man 
and preferred to teach Transfiguration at Hogwarts, although he soon became 
Headmaster (a post he held at the time of the 1st and 2nd Wizarding Wars). He 
was the founder of the Order of the Phoenix, a society that rallied and fought 
against the dark forces headed by He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named. The Order was a 
rallying point for all who opposed the Dark Arts. 

Dumbledore often made acquaintances with very 

prominent wizards and witches throughout his life. He worked on alchemy with 
renowned alchemist Nicolas Flamel, discussed history with Bathilda Bagshot, and 
astounded Griselda Marchbanks with his extraordinary wand work. 

Dumbledore served as Supreme Mugwump of the 

International Confederation of Wizards, and as Chief Warlock of the Wizengamot 
at various points in his life. He also discovered the Twelve Uses of Dragon’s 
Blood. He is a fan of chamber music and ten pin bowling as stated on the 
Dumbledore collectible card found in packs of Chocolate Frogs. 

For full details on his life and his advocacies, 
refer to Hogwarts, A History. 

Before the creation of any official wizarding 

governing body in Britain, witches and wizards lived among Muggles in plain 
sight. While they certainly did not publicize their existence, Muggles knew of 
them and, to a certain extent, tolerated them. When it became apparent in the 
turn of the first millennium that Muggles were incapable of interfering in 
wizarding affairs, a brief (if not reluctant) understanding arose between 
wizards and Muggles. However, this was not enough to keep wizards from 
interfering in Muggle affairs. Early Muggle sporting events were rigged for the 
benefit of the occasional gambler, and the results of these events were 
tampered with for reasons ranging from petty revenge to mere amusement. It was 
eventually a game of Cuaditch (pre-Quidditch) in which the Bludgers escaped the 
confines of the pitch and caused 29 Muggle casualties that spurred the creation 
of the Wizards’ Council in the following year, 1269. 

The Wizards’ Council’s first acts were to establish 
rules and regulations in regards to wizard sporting events. This goal was 
theoretically meant to detract from wizard involvement in Muggle sports and to 
prevent further harm on the Muggle population. The Wizards’ Council’s first 
Chief Warlock was Barberus Bragge, best known for his release of a Golden 
Snidget onto the field of a Cuaditch match and offering 150 galleons for its 
capture. Bragge was primarily ruled by his fondness for hunting, his tendency 
to look down on Muggles as inferior beings, and a love for fruit ganache. Thus 
began the rocky road of British wizarding politics. 

For the majority of his 

four year term as Chief Warlock, Bragge’s advisor Eadlac Earl worked behind the 
scenes to establish the first British Wizard Census, an official compilation of 
English spells and enchantments that was based off of the Standard Book of 
Spells written in the year 132 AD, and The Wizarding Entities’ Decree of 
Unlawful Magic in 1273, or WEDUM. WEDUM was the first British document to 
outline a system of punishments and fines for using magic that would harm, 
endanger, or kill other humans. The decree was later revised to include goblins 
in 1285 (though this was later revoked during the goblin rebellions), merpeople 
in 1294, and other human-like creatures (including vampires and hags) in 1301. 
Efforts were made to include centaurs and leprechauns, though none were 
successful, namely because centaurs thought themselves too intelligent for 
wizards, and leprechauns wouldn’t stop laughing long enough to sign anything. 
Eadlac Earl went on to become Chief Warlock for twenty years (from 1273 to 

1293) after Bragge’s accidental death, in which he was pecked to death by a 
flock of Golden Snidgets when his wand snapped on a hunting excursion. 

Burdock Muldoon, Chief 

Warlock from 1388 to 1402 was the first to attempt to establish an official 
electoral process, and the majority of his two year term was spent establishing 
which magical creatures would be responsible for governing the beings of the 
wizarding world. This first required that the Wizards’ Council define ‘being.’ 
Muldoon initially defined it as anything or anyone who walked on two legs. On 
14 September 1391, Muldoon extended an invitation to all magical ‘beings’ to 
gather in Stockport, a village just to the south east of Manchester. The 
goblins-with whom there was already increased hostility-took advantage of this 
definition and took it upon themselves to invite every imaginable two-legged 
creature, from trolls to pixies to diricrawls and the only Occamy at the time 
residing in Great Britain. The entire village was closed off for three weeks 
and its residents evacuated until such a time that the Occamy could be 
relocated back to its nest. Muldoon’s successor, Elfrida Clagg attempted 
several times to convene another meeting of magical beings, this time altering 
the definition of ‘being’ to include anyone or anything which could speak in 
human languages. As an added precaution the meeting was held in a magically 
closed off area in northern Britain, in Cove Bay, Aberdeen on 2 July 1404. 
However, with the revised definition, creatures such as Jarveys attended, causing 
equal mayhem. 

Around the late 15 th 

to early 16 th century, animosity between Muggle and wizarding 
populations grew at an alarming rate. Witch burnings, while relatively 
harmless, became increasingly frequent, and in the Muggle’s quest to eradicate 
magic from their lands, many non-magical Muggles were also executed. Elfrida 
Clagg, who remained Chieftainess of the Wizards’ Council from 1402 to 1433, was 
the first in British wizarding history to implement the Wizarding Entities’ 

Decree for Magic in the Presence of Muggles (WEDMPM). The wizarding census, 
which up until that point had been voluntary, was now lawful and enforced. 
Witches and wizards who lived among Muggles were forced to pass 
Muggle-Authentication Exams (MAE), in which they had to prove that they could 
live among Muggles without arousing suspicion. This method for establishing 
secrecy was rather ineffective, especially given that no one knew exactly what 
it was that made Muggles suspicious of magic. As such, examining the MAE’s was 
a very subjective process. 

While WEDMPM explicitly 

prohibited magic in the presence of a Muggle, catching and prosecuting those 
who went against the decree was extremely difficult. The Wizards’ Council did 
not have the manpower to actively supervise Muggle locations, nor were there 
spells at the time that could identify magic-users in Muggle territory. For a 
period of approximately six months the Wizards’ Council attempted to limit the 
use of all magic to only certain pre-approved areas in Britain, though this was 
met with massive resistance. Ironically, the struggle to hide magic from 
Muggles led to approximately two centuries (from the end of Clagg’s term as 
Chieftainess to the late 1600s) where magic was as prominent as ever in Muggle 

The bloody 1612 goblin 

rebellion left the wizarding Britain reeling, and concessions made to the 
goblins following the truce in Hogsmeade did not sit well with the majority of 
wizarding Britain, who were outraged by the actions of the goblins in the 
Scottish town. Goblin hate-groups continued to exist, though the Wizards’ 

Council officially promised the goblins security and recognized the opinions of 
the Brotherhood of Goblins. A few members of the Wizards’ Council even resigned 
over the recognition of the Brotherhood of Goblins, though most stayed on ‘to 
fight the problem where we can,’ as one Council member wrote in his private 


with the Wizard Council’s ‘capitulation’ to the goblins, the wizarding 
population of Britain began to grumble about the government’s ‘failure to 
protect the wizards,’ already threatened by Muggle witch-hysteria prior to the 
goblins’ uprising. Dissatisfied wizards refrained from acting against the 
government, however, and eventual change came from within the Council itself. 

Darryl Swigart 

doomed himself to be the last Chief Warlock of the Wizards’ Council when he 
followed the example of Muggle King Charles I, who dissolving Parliament in 
March 1629, ruled as no British king had since the thirteenth century without 

consulting a council of freemen. Encouraged perhaps by the comparatively wise 
and successful rulings of Charles I following the dissolution of Parliament and 
seeing many of the Muggle king’s opponents returning to him, Swigart tried to 
use his title of Chief to assert sole authority or ‘personal rule’ as the king 
had done. This greatly angered other members of the Council, in which decisions 
had always been made by debate and vote. 


Council, perhaps also looking to the Muggle government for inspiration, 
presented Swigart with a list of demands and refused to leave Swigarts’ home, 
where the Council, in the absence of any public building for the wizarding 
government, was then convening. One of these demands was that a number of 
formalized advisors to the Chief be elected, each in charge of a specific 
department of the government, thereby setting in place a system of checks and 
balances to the Chief. From this emerged the Ministry of Magic’s department and 
office heads. 


Council also demanded that Swigart immediately resign from his position as 
Chief. Swigart remained on the Council 

and sat grumbling in the corner as the wizards sat down to rearrange governing 
council of wizarding Britain. 


Council voted to dismiss several weeks later with an outline for a new governing 
system to be known as the Ministry of Magic. 


of the Wizards’ Council continued till 1631 when the Council agreed to enact 
their changes in whole, elected the first Minister for Magic, Damian Muther, 
who held the position till 1657, disbanded the Wizards’ Council, and reconvened 
as the Ministry of Magic. 


of the Ministry’s first acts was to pass the so-called Wand Ban, a clause in 
the Code of Wand Use that forbade any magical beings apart from wizards, 
witches, beings that were half-witch or -wizard, and werewolves from carrying a 
wand, striking a blow against the goblins and reassuring the general wizarding 
community that the new government would listen to their complaints. 

Initially the Ministry only had four departments: The 
Department of International Magical Cooperation, the Department for the 
Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures, the Department of Magical Games 
and Sports, and its largest department today, the Department of Magical Law 
Enforcement. Soon after its creation the Department of Magical Accidents and 
Catastrophes became a necessary addition. 

The Department of Magical Law Enforcement, already 
busy enforcing the Statue of Secrecy and taking to law those wizards whose 
hatred of Muggles boiled over into curses, was made busier in 1717 when 
Minister for Magic Larson Mole coined the term ‘Unforgivable Curses,’ and 
officially classified the Imperius Curse, the Cruciatus Curse, and Avada Kedavra as 
unforgivable and worthy 

of a lifetime sentence in Azkaban. 

Magical transportation had, for the better part of the 

18 th and 19 th century, been overseen by the Department of 

Magical Accidents and Catastrophes, what with the constant Splinching 

associated with Apparation, but once wizard Quintin Quale discovered how to 

connect to Muggle fireplaces using Floo powder in 1902, the workload for the 

department simply became too much, and the creation of the Department of 

Magical Transportation was added to the Ministry. 

Sometime during the 

late 1800s the Department of Mysteries also came into being, though it is 
unclear exactly when, how, or why it came about. Not even the Minister for 
Magic at the time, Faris ‘Spout Hole’ Spavin knew of its existence until 
several years into his term. 

From its founding in 

1631, the early days of the Ministry were dedicated to creating and 
implementing wizarding policies. In over 300 years, there have been exactly 
twenty-five Ministers for Magic, all of whom were men until the year 1798 when 
Artemisia Lufkin, the twelfth Minister, was elected into office. As a result, 
several older members of the Wizengamot resigned in protest. Nevertheless, 
Lufkin had a successful term in office, and worked alongside the then Head of 
the Department of Magical Law Enforcement Torin McTaggart to standardize 
training for Aurors and Hit Wizards. 

Her successor Grogan 

Stump, who served in office from 1811-1819, is credited for the creation of the 
three sub-divisions of the Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical 
Creatures: Being, Beast, and later, Spirit Division. Initially, there had only 
been two sub-divisions, but a protest float by the British ghost population 
caused Stump to create the aforementioned Spirit Division. 

The Ministry’s 

involvement in British wizarding education was at a minimum until Ottaline Gambol 
came into office in 1935. Until that point, transportation to Hogwarts had been 
dependent on a number of Portkey collection points. However, the use of 
Portkeys caused several problems-approximately a third of students would fail 
to arrive every year, and those that did were prone to Portkey sickness. 

Previously Head of the Department of Magical Transportation, Gambol’s 
fascination with Muggle technology inspired the idea of using a train as a 
comfortable, safe alternative to Portkeys. Obtaining the locomotive itself 
required a large-scale operation involving one hundred and sixty-seven Memory 
Charms, combined with the largest Concealment Charm ever to be performed in 
British history. 

Ottaline Gambol was 

also the first Minister for Magic to introduce herself to the acting Muggle 
Prime Minister. On 7 June 1935, the night that Muggle Stanley Baldwin was 
elected to his third term as Prime Minister, a portrait of former Minister for 
Magic Klaine Rogers was installed in the Prime Minister’s office. This move was 
highly criticized at the time, and Gambol was accused of breaking the Statute 
of Secrecy. However, her actions were praised by the International 
Confederation and allowed for open communication between the two governing 
bodies and the occasional influence on Muggle media when it suited the 
Ministry. It is now official policy for the acting Minister for Magic to 
introduce himself to the acting Muggle Prime Minister and to inform him of all 
pertinent incidences in the magical world that risk affecting the Muggle 


the fall of Lord Voldemort in the year 1981, Britain was ruled by a succession 
of unsuccessful Ministers for Magic. Minister Millicent Bagnold’s retirement in 
1990 was followed by the election of the wildly unpopular Minister Cornelius 
Fudge, who is best known for his refusal to acknowledge the return of Lord 
Voldemort and his fondness for bowler hats. Not long after Lord Voldemort’s 
second rise to power, Fudge resigned as a result of public pressure and was 
replaced by Minister Rufus Scrimgeour, who was Minister for Magic for little 

over a year before his death. Minister Pius Thicknesse then replaced 
Scrimgeour, though he too lasted a year only before his arrest for involvement 
with Lord Voldemort (doubt remains as to whether or not the Minister was acting 
under the Imperius). He was succeeded by the popular Kingsley Shacklebolt, a 
known member of the Order of the Phoenix and former Auror. He has been in 
office from 1998 to the present day.